working with local communities n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Working with Local Communities PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Working with Local Communities

Working with Local Communities

743 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Working with Local Communities

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Working with Local Communities Harold Goodwin

  2. Purpose of Participation • legitimation (Skeffington 1969) • a palliative: co-option • choice from pre-determined options • devolution of power, power sharing • empowerment (transformative?) • enabling people to determine choices in life and to influence the direction of change. Harold Goodwin

  3. Typology of Participation Goodwin Harold Goodwin

  4. Who is participating? • Communities are heterogeneous. • The community never thinks … • Individuals think • Different members of the same group may have different views • Men and women, old and young ………. Harold Goodwin

  5. Who are you exploiting? • What are you getting out of it? • What is the individual you are talking to getting out of it? • What are you putting back? • Who is gaining from that? • How many of the people in the room are being paid to be there? • What are their opportunity costs? Harold Goodwin

  6. Where do you stand? Researcher’s Agenda Host communities Host institution’s agenda Harold Goodwin

  7. Methods for Working with Communities • Stakeholder Analysis • Participatory Rural Appraisal • Livelihood Analysis Harold Goodwin

  8. 1 Stakeholder Analysis • All parties (or stakeholders) with an interest in the outcome of a decision should be considered • Stakeholder theory is normative – it redefines an organisation as a group of • “stakeholder interests’ coordinating and optimizing entity” (Freeman) Harold Goodwin

  9. An organization is characterised by its relationships with various groups and individuals Employees Customers Suppliers Governments Local Communities A “stakeholder in an organisation is (by definition) any group or individual who can affect or is affected by the achievement of the organization’s objectives” The power to affect the firm’s performance and/or A stake in firm’s performance Freeman Strategic Management 1984 Harold Goodwin

  10. Accountability Effectiveness Equity Flexibility Good governance Inclusiveness Learning Legitimacy Ownership Participation and engagement Partnership/Cooperative Management Societal gains Transparency Voices, not votes Key Principles Harold Goodwin

  11. Protected Areas Stakeholders Harold Goodwin

  12. Process • Balancing interests • Wide range of groups whose primary focus may not be the issue under consideration • Intrinsic value is not the same as equal value (issues of worth and substance) • Consultation and negotiation Harold Goodwin

  13. Stakeholders Donaldson & Preston 1995 “Stakeholders are persons or groups with legitimate interests in procedural and/or substantive aspects of corporate activity. Stakeholders are identified by their interests in the corporation.. The interests of all stakeholders are of intrinsic value. That is, each group of stakeholders merits consideration for its own sake…. Harold Goodwin

  14. All equal? • Consideration should be given to each stakeholder group – regardless of the relative power of each group. • Normative, descriptive and instrumental • “To be an effective strategist you must deal with those groups that can affect you, while to be responsive (and effective in the long run) you must deal with those groups that you can affect.” Freeman 1984:46 Harold Goodwin

  15. Failure Failure to retain participation by a primary stakeholder group is an indicator of failure • Identify stakeholders and perceived stakes • Implement a process to manage relationships with the stakeholders Harold Goodwin

  16. Implementation • “management of a set of transactions or bargains among the organization and its stakeholders” (Freeman) • Balance interests • Recognise that for a wide range of groups your organisation will not be central. • Intrinsic value is not the same as equal value • Be aware of the difference between consultation and negotiation Harold Goodwin

  17. Stakeholder Participation 902 results found,top 500 sorted by relevance sddstak3.pdfSection 1. TECHNICAL NOTE ON ENHANCING STAKEHOLDERPARTICIPATION IN AID ACTIVITIES April 1995 CONTENTS PART ONE: DEFINITIONS AND ISSUES INTRODUCTION 1 WHAT IS STAKEHOLDER ... -109.9KB Harold Goodwin

  18. Toolkit Booklet (in PDF format):  The Stakeholder Toolkit. A Resource for Women and NGOs.Edited by Minu Hemmati & Kerstin Seliger. March 2001Part I Introduction (1.1 MB)Part II The United Nations (313 KB)Part III NGOs & Women’s Organisations (327 KB)Part IV International Agreements on Women’s/Gender Issues (109 KB)Part V NetworkingAnnexes (81 KB Harold Goodwin

  19. Reading • Sautter Managing Stakeholders Annals 1999. • • Harold Goodwin

  20. 2 Participatory Rural Appraisal • A growing family of methods and approaches to enable local people to express, enhance, share and analyse their knowledge of life and conditions and to act. • Engage local people in planning, developing, managing and monitoring and appraising projects. • Participation of all people in learning about their needs and opportunities and in the action required to achieve the shared …. Harold Goodwin

  21. Participatory Learning and Action • Rapid Rural Appraisal RRA • Participatory Rural Appraisal PRA • Participatory Learning Methods PALM • Participatory Action Research PAR • Farming Systems Research FSR • Method Active de Recherche et de Planification Participative MARP Harold Goodwin

  22. Too good to be true? IIED • “increasing accountability” • “Enhancing participation and advocacy efforts” • “Improving local and external awareness of key issues” • “increasing local level capacity” • “sustaining partnerships between different stakeholders”. Harold Goodwin

  23. What is PLA? • Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) is an umbrella term for a wide range of similar approaches and methodologies, including Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA), Participatory Learning Methods (PALM), Participatory Action Research (PAR), Farming Systems Research (FSR), Méthod Active de Recherche et de Planification Participative (MARP), and many others. The common theme to all these approaches is the full participation of people in the processes of learning about their needs and opportunities, and in the action required to address them. Harold Goodwin

  24. “Creative approach to investigating issues of concern to poor people, and to planning, implementing, and evaluating development activities” Visualisation Interviewing Group work Interactive learning Shared knowledge Structured analysis Offer opportunities for mobilising local people for joint action What is PLA? IIED website Harold Goodwin

  25. Principles • Learning rapidly and progressively • Reversal of learning (androgogic) • Optimising & sharing knowledge • Off setting biases – seeking diversity • Triangulating • Facilitators play a key role - requires self critical awareness Harold Goodwin

  26. Foundations of PRA • Increasing awareness of the failure of conventional approaches to meet the needs of poor people. • Emphasis on information sharing the production of knowledge and development of strategies • Behaviour and attitudes • Methods • Sharing • From extracting to empowering Harold Goodwin

  27. From RRA to PRA Harold Goodwin

  28. Highly skilled facilitation • Be clear and open about your objectives • Embrace and admit error • Be self critical and listen to criticism • Hand over the pen from “us” to “them” • Relax and enjoy it Harold Goodwin

  29. Teamwork methods • Team contracts & reviews • Peer assessments • Interview guides and checklists • Work sharing in local activities • Local presentations • Process notes and personal diaries Harold Goodwin

  30. Sampling methods • Transect walks • Wealth ranking, well being analysis • Social maps • Interview chains Harold Goodwin

  31. Discussing and interviewing methods • Semi-structured interviewing • Focus groups • Key informants • Ethno histories and biographies • Case studies & story telling • Direct observation • Livelihood analysis Harold Goodwin

  32. Participatory map Social map and wealth ranking Seasonal calendar Daily routine Time lines Matrix scoring Venn diagrams Preference and pair ranking Mobility maps Network diagrams Impact diagrams Pie diagrams Flow diagrams Visualisation methods Harold Goodwin

  33. Characterising PRA • Field based visualisation, interviewing, group work – characterised by • Interactive learning • Shared knowledge – integrated vision • Flexible structured analysis • Mobilisation for joint action Harold Goodwin

  34. Be self critical • Reflect on your practice – how participative/ transparent is it? • Think about your ethics – are you being manipulative/manipulated? • Put something back. Harold Goodwin

  35. 3 Livelihoods Analysis The Impacts of Tourism on Rural Livelihoods: Namibia’s Experience Caroline Ashley Harold Goodwin

  36. Livelihood Approach • Livelihood analysis is a methodology, which can be used to analyse the contribution that different forms of tourism might make to the livelihoods of the local people. • The great advantage of livelihood analysis is that it provides a methodology that looks at the positive and negative impacts of a particular form of tourism development upon the livelihoods of the poor. Harold Goodwin

  37. Livelihood Assets “the livelihood building blocks”: Financial Capital – cash at hand or which can be borrowed Human Capital – the skills base of particular individuals and of the group Natural Capital – the resources of the environment available to individuals and the group: water resources, forest, arable land, pasture, rivers and lakes, wildlife Physical Capital – buildings, machinery, equipment Social Capital - the social cohesion of the group and the strength of its networks. Harold Goodwin

  38. Key potential impacts on livelihoods Harold Goodwin

  39. Reading • • • Ashley C. (2000) The Impacts of Tourism on Rural Livelihoods: Namibia's Experience, Overseas Development Institute Working Paper 128 Harold Goodwin

  40. Harold Goodwin

  41. Harold Goodwin

  42. Harold Goodwin

  43. Harold Goodwin

  44. Harold Goodwin

  45. Harold Goodwin

  46. Harold Goodwin

  47. Harold Goodwin

  48. Implications • Addressing a full range of costs and benefits • Matching tourism options to livelihood priorities Harold Goodwin