Computer Literacy Project Computer Literacy Project English Grammar Conrad Chau 4A (5) Herman Lai 4A (15)
Content Page • Introduction • Tense (I)Present Tense • (II)Past Tense • (III)Future Tense • Gerund • Participles • Conditional Sentences • Transitive and Intransitive Verbs • Antonyms and Synonyms • Proofreading • Conclusion • Feelings • Working Page • To go to the part you want, click on the words highlighted.
Introduction • This PowerPoint tells you the use of English including tenses, gerunds and other grammar skills. It also got a proofreading exercise for all of you to try, so come on and try this PowerPoint out!!
The Present Tense The Simple Present Tense : It is used to show a habitual action or facts or universal truths. The following page are some examples to show how the simple present tense is used:
Examples • Habitual action Example 1: John seldomdoes his homework correctly. Example 2: I usuallyhave breakfast at 7:00am. • Facts or universal truths Example 1: The earth moves round the sun. Example 2: English is my favourite subject.
Remarks • The bare infinitive should be used in Simple Present. If the subject is not I or you, the subject is at third person. If the subject is singular (for example, book, it, he, she) and third person, we have to add ‘s’ or ‘es’ of that verb. For example, • Example 1: He does homework everyday. • Example 2: He practisespiano everyday.
The Present Perfect Tense • Pattern: has/have + past participle (For example, has done/has gone) • It is used to show a past action whose time is not given or not definite. When we use Present Perfect, we intend more to show the result of the past action rather than the action itself. For example,
Examples Example 1: I have read the instructions but I do not understand them. Example 2: I have heard this story twice.
Remarks: If the time of the past action is definite, we can never use present perfect tense. Instead, the simple past tense should be used. Moreover, present perfect tense is used with before, lately and recently etc. These words show indefinite time, for example, • There have been a lot of changesrecently.
The Present Perfect Tense It is also used to show an action which happened within a period from a past time to the present time of speaking. Thus, it is used with since, for, yet and up to the recent moment, for example, • Example 1: Peter has been in this company for 6 years. • Example 2: 20 people have died as a result of food poisoning so far this year.
Present Continuous Tense • Pattern: verb-to-be + “-ing” form. • It is used when an action is happening at the time of speaking. For example, Example 1: Look at how well the children are drawing. Example 2: I am looking for my lost watch at present.
Present Perfect Continuous tense • Pattern: has/have + been + “-ing” form • It is used to show a continuous action which lasted from the past time to the present time of speaking and is suppose to go on in the future. For example, Example 1: I have been waiting for you for 5 hours. Example 2: Mr. Chua has been living in Hong Kong for more than 10 years.
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The Simple Past Tense • What is the Simple Past Tense used for? • How are the structures like? • Now let us have a look at it…..
The Simple Past Tense • The Simple Past Tense is used to : • to show an action or event in the past • to show past habits. • The following page are some examples to show how the simple past tense is used:
Examples • To show an action or event in the past Example 1: I saw a rabbit yesterday. Example 2: They went to Macau last Sunday. Example 3: The plane from Singaporearrived anhour ago. Example 4: I met Pauline at the cinema last night. • To show past habits. Example 1: We liked to swim in the river when we were young. Example 2: I used to play with my uncle in his office.
The Past Perfect Tense • Pattern: had + past participle • It is used when there are two actions, one happens earlier than other. We use Past Perfect for the first action and Simple Past for the second. For example, Example 1: He had done his homework before he went to play. Example 2: After they had had dinner, they returned home.
Past Continuous Tense • It is used to show that someone was in the middle of doing something when another action happened or at a particular past time. For example, • Example 1: We were singing in a low voice when someone suddenly broke into the room. • Example 2: She was having lunch at 7 o’clock yesterday
Past Perfect Continuous Tense • It is used to describe an action began in the past and continued up to the time of speaking or just stopped. Moreover, it is used to emphasize the continuation of an activity. For example, Example 1: What had you been playing when mother phoned you. Example 2: I had been studying for a long time so I was feeling hot and mad.
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The Future Tense • Pattern: will/shall + bare infinitive • The simple future tense is used to • To show an action, which will happen later or sometimes after now. It is usually expressed by shall (first person, however not commonly used nowadays) or will (second and third person and are used more commonly nowadays) plus a bare infinitive • To express possible condition • The following page are some examples to show how the simple future tense is used:
The Future Tense Example 1: I will be a Form 5 student. Example 2: What subjects shall we study? Example 3: We will have an examination soon. Example 4: My sister will be eighteen next year. Example 5: I will not give any suggestions until you answer my questions. • (Under the condition that you answer the question). Example 6: I shall answer your questions if they are not difficult. • (Under the condition that the questions are not difficult.)
Future Perfect Tense • Pattern: by /in + a time expression ( For example: by the end of the year ) • It is used to show an action that will be completed on or before a specific time in the future. For example, • Example 1: By the time the party is over, the children will have gone to sleep. • Example 2:In two years time, I shall have taken my certificate
Future Continuous Tense • It is used to show an action which will be completed on or before a specific time in the future and will continue from then onwards. For example, Example 1: I will have been studying in Hong Kong Tang King Po College for five yearsby the end of this term. Example 2: Angela will have been living with Peter in New York a monthtomorrow.
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Gerund • A gerund is a noun, formed by adding “ing” to a verb and performs the functions as a verbal noun. Gerunds can be used as a subject, after possessive adjectives, after prepositions, after certain verbs and after some common expressions. Below are some information of the above thing. 1) As a subject, for example: • Example 1: Smoking is now prohibited in cinemas • Example 2: Reading is good for you. 2)After possessive adjectives: • Example 1: Would you mind opening the window? • Example 2: Your calling on us was welcomed.
Gerund 3) After all prepositions: Example 1: He insisted onpaying the bill. Example 2: I have given upsmoking for a long time. Example 3: I am used toreading at night.
Gerund • 4)After certain verbs such as the list below: • For example: Example 1: He suggestedleaving at seven o’clock. Example 2: I caught him stealing my money. Example 3: We spent a month working on the project.
Gerund 5)After common expressions These are some examples for you: Eg. 1: It/There is no use Eg. 2: Is it any use? Eg. 3: It/There is no good Eg. 4: …feel like... • Eg. 5: ...be busy... • Eg. 6: ...be worth... • Eg. 7: ...cannot help... • Eg. 8: ...cannot stand... • Below are some examples to show: • Example 1: It is no good waiting here. • Example 2: I cannot help crying over the bad news. • Example 3: I feel like going to the beach today.
Gerund • However, in gerund there are cases where the use of Gerund and Infinitives have different meanings. (A) Stop + gerund: stop what one is doing. (B) Stop + infinitive: make a break in order to do something else. Example 1: The driver stopped examining the engine. (=not to examine anymore) Example 2: The driver stopped to examine the engine. (=stopped the car so as to examine)
Gerund (C) Go on + gerund :continue what one has been doing. (D) Go on + infinitive : change topic, move on to something. Example 1: Please go on dancing, it is wonderful. Example 2: He began cry describing the route and went on the tell us the cost of the trip. E) Try + gerund : make an experience; do something to see what will happen.F) Try + infinitive : make an effort; attempt to do something difficult. Example 1: I tried sending her presents but she did not respond. Example 2: He tried to open the can but failed.
Gerund (G) Words such as remember, forget and regret followed by gerund is to show what one has done or what has happened. (H) Words such as remember, forget and regret followed by infinitives if we want to show what one has to more or is going to do. Example 1: I do not regret telling her the truth even if it may upset her. (= I do not regret that I have told her the truth.) Example 2: I regret to inform you that the application is successful. (= I am going to inform you?)
Gerund (I) Verbs such as like, like, prefer, hate followed by a gerund if we want to express general cases. (J) Verbs such as like, like, prefer, hate followed by an infinitive if referring to particular occasions. Example 1: I prefer having dinner at home. (general preference) Example 2: I prefer to eat apples today. (particular case)
Gerund • (K)Verbs such as allow, advise, forbid, permit followed by a • gerund when there is no personal object. • (L) Verbs such as allow, advise, forbid, permit followed by • an infinitive when there is a personal object. • Example 1: We do not allow smoking in the hall. • Example 2: We do not allow people(personal object)to smoke here. • (M)Verbs such as need, require, want, deserve, want • followed by a gerund as a passive meaning. • Example 1: My hair needs cutting. • (=needs to be cut) • Example 2: The Garden needs watering. • (=needs to be watered )
Gerund (N) Verb of preposition such as see, watch, notice, observe, hear, listen, feel, smellfollowed by a gerund if we wish to emphasize an action that was going on at the time of perceiving. Example 1: I heard him call(bare infinitive) me yesterday. Example 2: Do you smell something burning (gerund)? Example 3: He was hurt(passive)to say(infinitive) that he disagreed.
Gerund (O)Verbs such as make and let followed by a bare infinitive and used in a passive form after bare infinitives should be used. Example 1: My boss made us work (bare infinitive) all night. Example 2: She was made(passive)to work(infinitive) all night.
Gerund P) Bare infinitives used after had better, would rather, can not, but, can do nothing but. Example 1: We could do nothing but wait. Example 2: I would rather go home now
Gerund • The following is a form of Gerund, remember this! It is very important:
Participle (A) A participle is a verbal adjective which derives from a verb and performs the function of an adjective. Below are the uses of participle:(I) Participle Clauses can replace adjective clauses, the next page shows you the examples,
Participle Example 1: The train which is arriving at Platform 2 is the 14:20 train for Lo Wu. The train arriving at Platform 2 is the 14:20 train for Lo Wu. Example 2: There were some students who were taking Religious Studies in our class. There were some students taking Religious Studies in our class.
Participle (B) When two actions occur simultaneously, we can use a participle clause to express one of them. For example, Example 1: May stood at the bus stop and waited for a bus. May stood at the bus stop waiting for a bus. Example 2: The Old Lady sat on the bench and watched the children play. Sitting on the bench, the old lady watched the children play. The Old Lady sat on the bench watching the children play.
Participle (C)When two actions occur one after another, we can use a participle clause to express the first action. Thus, it can be used to replace an adjective clause of time. Example 1: After he had done [active] his lesson, he rushed to the playground. Having done his lesson, he rushed to the playground.
Participle (continue)Example 2: After he had been accused[passive] of dishonesty, he decided to resign.Having been accused of dishonesty, he decided to resign.Being accused of dishonesty, he decided to resign. Accused of dishonesty, he decided to resign.
Participle (D) Participle Clauses can replace adverb clauses of reason. Example 1: As he feared [active], his father would hit him, he ran away from home. Fearing his father would hit him, he ran away from home. Example 2: Since she was scolded [passive] by her mother, she cried bitterly. Scolded by her mother, she cried bitterly. Having being scolded by her mother, she cried bitterly.
Participle (E) Participle Clauses can be placed after conjunctions on prepositions. Example 1: Onhearing the news, she collapsed. Example 2: In/Whiletrying to open the can, I hurt myself. Example 3: If travelling to Beijing, you must go to the Great Wall! Example 4: Once taken, the drug has a deadly effect.
Participle (F) It is essential that the subject of a main clause and participle clause should be the same. A participle clause can have its own subject which is different from the main clause. Example 1: Being a fine day, we went swimming. Example 2: It being a fine day, we went swimming. • Remarks: For some common expressions of participle clauses, their subjects need • not be the same as the main clauses.
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Conditional sentences • A conditional sentence is composed of a conditional clause and a main clause. The conditional clause expresses the condition and the main clause expresses the consequence of that condition.
Conditional sentences (i) Zero Conditional sentences: Definition: This pattern is to show a truth. Pattern: [If clauses] + [Main clause] (Simple Present tense) (Simple Present tense) Example: If water is put into the freezer, it turns ice.[Conditional clause] [Main clause]