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SCHOOL OF DENTAL MEDICINE UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB. Lidija Štefić. ENGLISH IN DENTAL MEDICINE II. THE HISTORY of DENTISTRY. Oral disease has been a problem for humans from the beginning of history. Skulls of the Cro-Magnon people, who Inhabited the earth 25,000 years ago,
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SCHOOL OF DENTAL MEDICINE UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB Lidija Štefić ENGLISH IN DENTAL MEDICINE II
Oral disease has been a problem for humans from the beginning of history. Skulls of the Cro-Magnon people, who Inhabited the earth 25,000 years ago, show evidence of tooth decay. AncientMesopotamia The earliest recorded reference to oral disease is from an ancient (5000 BC) Sumerian text that describes "tooth worms" as a cause of dental decay.
3000.-2500. B.C. TEETH WERE BOUND TOGETHER WITH GOLD WIRE At an ancient burial site, dental bridges are excavated. Most probably inserted post-mortem.
3100.-2181. B.C. THE EGYPTIANS HESI-RE is the earliest dentist known by name Extraction was the first choice for dental trouble The coarse diet consumed by the Egyptians is the primary cause of dental disease, resulting in abrasion of the occlusal surfaces of the teeth..
3100.-2181. B.C. Historical texts show numerous references to toothache, pulpitis, erosion, gingivitis
900.-300. B.C. THE MAYAS El Castillo Work on teeth was done not for dental maintenance or hygiene, but strictly for ritual, religious or purely self adornment purposes. Jade and turquoise stones are implanted in the teeth. Filing teeth into different shapes to indicate tribal and religious affiliations.
900.-300. B.C. Speculation that the Mayans were the first to perform tooth transplantation
460.-377. B.C. THE GREEKS HIPPOCRATES writes about tooth decay and theorizes that dental problems arise from a natural disposition or inherited weakness.
460.-377. B.C. Ancient Greeks used pumice, talc, emery, ground alabaster, coral powder and iron rust as dentifrice Fingers were used as a toothbrush to cleanse the teeth.
166.-201. B.C. THE ROMANS The Etruscans become experts in restorative dentistry by using gold crowns and fixed bridgework. Complete and partial dentures are not uncommon. Etruscan couple, National Museum at Florence
166.-201. B.C. The Romans have high regard for oral hygiene. They use bones, eggshells, and oyster shells mixed with honey to cleanse the teeth.
249. A.D. APOLLONIA Saint Apollonia was one of a group of virgin martyrs who suffered in Alexandria during a local uprising against the Christians prior to the persecution of Decius. According to legend, her torture included having all of her teeth violently pulled out or shattered.
249. A.D. For this reason, she is popularly regarded as the patroness of dentistry and those suffering from toothache or other dental problems.
570.-950. A.D. ISLAMIC DENTISTRY The Siwak, a primitive form of toothbrush, is used for cleaning teeth, probably since prehistoric times.
570.-950. A.D. A horse shoe shaped metal instrument is used to scrape the tongue as part of oral hygiene care.
1452.-1571. A.D. LEONARDO DA VINCI depicts the maxillary antrum. describes the anatomy of the jaws, teeth, and the maxillary sinus
1563.-1728. A.D. Bartolomeo Eustachi The first dental anatomist He publishes"Pamphlet On The Teeth" which covers anatomy and histology of the teeth.
1563.-1728. A.D. PIERRE FAUCHARD publishes "Treatise on the Teeth" and elevates dentistry to new levels. advocates that instead of patients sitting on the floor, they sit on chairs. Several dental procedures which he developed are still in use today Fauchard’s dentist’s drill
1764. A.D. The key is used by dentists in the American colonies to extract teeth. Some keys are made by blacksmiths, who often served as the local dentist.
1746.-1755. A.D. PHILLIP PFAFF proposes using softened wax to take impressions of the teeth
John Hunter (1728 – 1793) publishes his book “The Natural History of the Human Teeth” in 1839. gives the first course of dental lectures at Guy’s Hospital in London
1771.-1775. A.D. PAUL REVERE using previously constructed dental bridgework, identifies a dead body based on finding the bridge in the mouth of the deceased. This is the first time dental work is used to identify a person after death.
1790. A.D. JOSIAH FLAGG using the design of a Windsor chair, constructs the first chair made specifically for dentists. It had an adjustable and extended arms which held instruments.
1792. A.D. R.C. SKINNER He is responsible for the first free dental care clinic for those who cannot afford the fees. He also is a firm advocate of preventative dental maintenance. Skinner is considered the father of American dental literature.
1797.-1832. A.D. NICOLAS DUBOIS DE CHEMANT patents porcelain teeth. JAMES SNELL invents the first reclining dental chair.
1866. A.D. LUCY BEAMAN HOBBS She graduated from the Ohio College of Dental Surgery, the first American woman to earn a in dentistry degree.
1868.-1872. A.D. GEORGE F. GREEN a mechanic of the S.S. White Company invented the first electric dental drill. In 1872, he put the first electric drill on the market. The motor was incorporated directly into the hand-piece. Modern electric dental drill
1868.-1872. A.D. The majority of dentists used the foot driven drill because most offices in the country were not electrified
1895. A.D. G.V. BLACK perfects the formulation for amalgam for dental fillings: 68% silver with small amounts of copper, tin and zinc.
1895.-1896. A.D. WILHELM ROENTGEN invents the X-ray. In 1901 he is awarded the Nobel prize.
1895.-1896. A.D. C. EDMUND KELLS uses the first X-ray in dental practice.
1901. A.D. Weston A. Price recommends the use of x-ray in root canal therapy.
1906. A.D. Einhorn recommends novacaine and adrenalin combination for local anesthesia.
1915. A.D. McKay and Black publish results of investigation of fluoride in drinking water. After that it became a practice of adding fluoride compounds to water with the intended purpose of reducing tooth decay in the general population.
The first toothpaste In 1950. the fluoride was first added to toothpastes
Dentistry in the future Biotechnical advances will significantly improve future dental care. Diagnostic techniques, ranging from biotechnical analysis of specific oral bacteria to imaging technology involving magnetic resonance and computer assistance, will allow more accurate and earlier detection of pathologic change .
Dentistry in the future There is an increasing tendency for dentists to enter into partnership or group arrangements so that expertise and costly equipment can be shared.
DENTAL CARIES one of the most common of all disorders may affect any person the most significant cause of tooth loss in younger people
Causes of dental caries bacterial causes: - a wide variety of bacteria that convert foods - especially sugar and starch - into acids such as lactic acid created through fermentation processes Streptococcus mutans Lactobacilli
Causes of dental caries lactic acids seep into the tooth and wear away tooth structure S. mutans and Lactobacillicontinue to thrive and continue to secrete these acids bacteria, acid, food debris and saliva combine in the mouth to form a sticky substance called plaque that adheres to the teeth
Causes of dental caries the acids secreted by S. mutans and Lactobacilli in the plaque dissolve the enamel surface of the tooth left untreated, carious lesions will increase in severityfrom small discolored stains to actual holes in the tooth - cavities
Causes of dental caries cavities are usually painless until they grow very large inside the internal structures of the tooth when cavities reach the pulp they can kill the nerve and disrupt the blood vessels in the tooth if left untreated complications may occur (such as irreversible pulpitis or acute apical pulpitis).
Signs and symptoms odontalgia visible pits or cavities in the teeth halitosis (bad breath)
Signs and symptoms the tooth has fractured no caries a small white spot forming of a lesion secondary caries caries undermines the tooth
Types of dental caries occlusal facial ligual interaproximal buccal labial
Diagnosis of caries smaller require examination with a dental explorer large cavities are visually aparrent