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BIOL 2401

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BIOL 2401

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  1. BIOL 2401 Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology Mrs. Willie Grant (210) 643-8968 Chapter 17: The Special Senses Chapter 18: The Endocrine System

  2. An Introduction to the Special Senses Learning Outcomes 17-1 Describe the sensory organs of smell, trace the olfactory pathways to their destinations in the brain, and explain the physiological basis of olfactory discrimination. 17-2 Describe the sensory organs of taste, trace the gustatory pathways to their destinations in the brain, and explain the physiological basis of gustatory discrimination. 17-3 Identify the internal and accessory structures of the eye, and explain the functions of each. 17-4 Explain color and depth perception, describe how light stimulates the production of nerve impulses, and trace the visual pathways to their destinations in the brain. 17-5 Describe the structures of the external, middle, and internal ear, explain their roles in equilibrium and hearing, and trace the pathways for equilibrium and hearing to their destinations in the brain.

  3. An Introduction to the Endocrine System Learning Outcomes 18-1 Explain the importance of intercellular communication, describe the mechanisms involved, and compare the modes of intercellular communication that occur in the endocrine and nervous systems. 18-2 Compare the cellular components of the endocrine system with those of other systems, contrast the major structural classes of hormones, and explain the general mechanisms of hormonal action on target organs. 18-3 Describe the location, hormones, and functions of the pituitary gland, and discuss the effects of abnormal pituitary hormone production. 18-4 Describe the location, hormones, and functions of the thyroid gland, and discuss the effects of abnormal thyroid hormone production. 18-5 Describe the location, hormone, and functions of the parathyroid glands, and discuss the effects of abnormal parathyroid hormone production.

  4. An Introduction to the Special Senses Five Special Senses • Olfaction • Gustation • Vision • Equilibrium • Hearing

  5. Figure 17-1a The Olfactory Organs Olfactory Pathway to the Cerebrum Olfactoryepithelium Olfactorynervefibers (N I) Olfactorytract Centralnervoussystem Olfactorybulb Smell (Olfaction) Olfaction Organs provide sense of smell. They are located in nasal cavity. 1 What is the life-span of an olfactory receptor? Cribriformplate Superiornasalconcha The olfactory organ onthe left side of the nasal septum

  6. 17-2 Taste (Gustation) Taste Buds—associated with epithelial projections (lingual papillae) on superior surface of the tongue Three Types of Lingual Papillae Filiform papillae Fungiform papillae Circumvallate papillae

  7. Figure 17-4a External Features and Accessory Structures of the Eye • (Vision) • Accessory Structuresof the Eye (provide protection, lubrication and support) • Include: The palpebrae (eyelids) and the lacrimal apparatus • The palpebrae (eyelids) • The lacrimal apparatus Eyelashes Pupil Lateral canthus Palpebra Palpebral fissure Sclera Medial canthus Lacrimal caruncle Corneal limbus Gross and superficialanatomy of the accessory structures

  8. Muscles of the Eye

  9. 17-3 The Eye Eyeball Is hollow and divided into two cavities Large posterior cavity Smaller anterior cavity

  10. 17-3 The Eye Three Layers of the Eye • Outer fibrous layer • Intermediate vascular layer • Deep inner layer 2 What are the components of the fibrous tunic and vascular tunic?

  11. 17-3 The Eye The Inner Layer Outer layer called pigmented part Inner called neural part (retina) Contains visual receptors and associated neurons Rods and cones are types of photoreceptors Rods—Donot discriminate light colors/Highly sensitive to light Cones—Provide color vision Densely clustered in fovea, at center of macula 3 What the two types of photoreceptors, and how do their functions differ?

  12. The Chambers of the Eye Aqueous Humor Vitreous boody

  13. The Eye Light Refraction (bending of light by retina and lens) Accommodation (shape of lens changes to focus image on retina) Astigmatism Condition where light passing through cornea and lens is not refracted properly Visual image is distorted Visual acuity Clarity of vision “Normal” rating is 20/20

  14. 4 What is presbyopia?

  15. 17-4 Visual Physiology The Visual Pathways Begin at photoreceptors and ends at visual cortex of cerebral hemispheres Message crosses two synapses before it heads toward brain

  16. 17-5 The Ear TheExternal Ear Auricle—surrounds entrance to external acoustic meatus and protects opening of canal as well as provides directional sensitivity. External acoustic meatus—ends at tympanic membrane (eardrum) Tympanic membrane—is a thin, semitransparent sheet that separates external ear from middle ear Ceruminous glands—Integumentary glands along external acoustic meatus that secretes waxy material (cerumen wich keeps foreign objects out of tympanic membrane and slows growth of microorganisms in external acoustic meatus.

  17. 17-5 The Ear The Middle Ear Also called tympanic cavity Communicates with nasopharynx via auditory tube Permits equalization of pressures on either side of tympanic membrane Encloses and protects three auditory ossicles • Malleus (hammer) • Incus (anvil) • Stapes (stirrup)

  18. 17-5 The Ear The Internal Ear Contains fluid called endolymph Bony labyrinth surrounds and protects membranous labyrinth Subdivided into: Vestibule Semicircular canals Cochlea

  19. Figure 17-21 The Anatomy of the Ear Middle Ear Internal Ear External Ear Elastic cartilages Auditory ossicles Ovalwindow Semicircular canals Petrous part oftemporal bone Auricle Facial nerve (N VII) Vestibulocochlearnerve (N VIII) Bony labyrinthof internal ear Cochlea Tympaniccavity Auditory tube Tonasopharynx Tympanicmembrane Vestibule External acousticmeatus Roundwindow 5 What structures separate the middle ear from the internal ear?

  20. 18 The Endocrine System

  21. An Introduction to the Endocrine System The Endocrine System Regulates long-term processes Growth Development Reproduction Uses chemical messengers to relay information and instructions between cells 6 What is the basic difference between endocrine glands and exocrine glands?

  22. 18-2 Hormones Classes of Hormones Hormones can be divided into three groups • Amino acid derivatives • Peptide hormones • Lipid derivatives Secretion and Distribution of Hormones Hormones circulate freely or travel bound to special carrier proteins

  23. 18-2 Structural Classification of Hormones

  24. 18-9 Endocrine Tissues of Other Systems Many Organs of Other Body Systems Have Secondary Endocrine Functions Intestines (digestive system) Kidneys (urinary system) Heart (cardiovascular system) Thymus (lymphatic system and immunity) Gonads (reproductive system)

  25. 18-10 Hormone Interactions Hormones Interact to Produce Coordinated Physiological Responses When a cell receives instructions from two hormones at the same time, four outcomes are possible • Antagonisticeffects - opposing • Synergisticeffects - additive • Permissive effects - one hormone is necessary for another to produce effect • Integrative effects - hormones produce different and complementary results

  26. 18-10 Hormone Interactions Hormones Important to Growth Growth hormone (GH) Thyroid hormones Insulin PTH and calcitriol Reproductive hormones

  27. 18-10 Hormone Interactions The Hormonal Responses to Stress General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) Also called stress response How body responds to stress-causing factors Is divided into three phases • Alarm phase • Resistance phase • Exhaustion phase 9 What is the basic difference between the stress response and homeostasis?

  28. 18-10 Hormone Interactions The Effects of Hormones on Behavior Hormone changes Can alter intellectual capabilities, memory, learning, and emotional states Affect behavior when endocrine glands are over-secreting or under-secreting Aging and Hormone Production Causes few functional changes Decline in concentration of: Growth hormone Reproductive hormones