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The War of Independence

The War of Independence

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The War of Independence

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  1. The War of Independence From the Partition Decision to shaping Israel’s borders 1947-1949

  2. The war of communities (12/47-4/48) • The Arabs never accepted the Partition. Attacks on roads and Jewish traffic by irregular local Arabs. • The Haganah brings supplies to different places with convoys. Shortage of weapons and ammunition. • The Yeshuv is very vulnerable.A lot of settlements are isolated. Jerusalem is under siege. Neighborhoods in mixed cities and frontier areas are attacked. • An army of Arab volunteers from different countries, “Arab Liberation Army”, invades North Palestine (include 4 regiments). • Jewish convoys are ambushed by Arabs, and their passengers killed

  3. Plan D’ – creating territorial continuity • The U.S. government tried to cancel the partition. Later on, they suggested that the Zionists postpone the declaration of an independent state • The last month of the Mandate, a large Jewish military initiative. The purpose: to connect all the Jewish enclaves. • Arab forces - local and foreign volunteers - can’t coordinate their responses. • Arab Elites leave Palestine. After Dir Yassin events, the beginning of a mass exodus

  4. The declaration and the invasion • Regardless of American demand and military risk, the state is declared. • The Jewish state is named “Israel” • 5 regular Arab armies invade Palestine. • The Arabs’ plan – A Blitz directed to Haifa • The Arabs’ invitation and the different interests of Arab countries

  5. The Balance of Power – May 15, 1948

  6. From the invasion to the First truce • The Egyptians succeed to get as close as 16 miles from Tel Aviv and to the Southern outskirts of Jerusalem • Syrian and Lebanese invade the North. • The Arab legion (Trans-Jordan army) cut the way to Jerusalem and capture the Jewish quarter of the old city • Iraqi troops threaten to cut the Jewish state in half

  7. The Jewish state’s struggle to survive • The Syrians and the Lebanese are stopped by local forces in Degania and Malkiyah • After three failed attempts to take Latrun and open the way to Jerusalem, a new way is built in the mountain – the Burma road • Iraqi troops and Kaukji Army stop their advance due to Jewish attacks • First 5 fighter planes arrived in Israel and stopped the Egyptian troops in Isdud • The Haganah became the IDF (Israel defense forces). Etzel and Lehi merge into the new force

  8. From truce to armistice • After 3 and a half weeks, the UN call for a monthly truce was accepted. • Israel organizes its forces. • From now on the initiative is the hands of Israelis. • The ten days’ fight and the second truce • The last stage – the Negev and the Galilee are annexed to Israel

  9. Operation Horev and the creation of Gaza strip and the West Bank