Humans and Animals? Do Humans and Animals have the same genetic codes for the same enzymes?
The genetic code makes up our DNA which is found in the nucleus of our cells. Genetic codes contains information and instructions to keep our body healthy. To keep our body healthy and properly functioning, our genes are used as the starting blocks of protein synthesis. The following diagram below explains the process of protein synthesis and it tells you what is involved in the process: http://www.utpa.edu/faculty/materon/3401/mainimages/protein_synthesis.gif
Both humans and animals need enzymes which come from amino acids, which are made from the genetic code through protein synthesis. On that note, you would think that if both a human and a chimp have insulin, that they would need the same the genetic code to create that enzyme, but this is not true. Thus, because there are only 20 amino acids but 64 different sequences of codons (three paired nucleotides), and the condons instruct which amino acids to produce, there must be more than one codon for each amino acid.
Furthermore, according to sociably known facts, chimps have a very high percentage of similarities of the genetic codes that humans have. But even if one nucleotide is different, that changes the whole codon which may or may not change the instructions for the production of an amino acid. Therefore, humans and animals may have the same enzymes but it is possible that they may have a different genetic code for it. This is just a table showing what each codon represents in terms of amino acids. http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_DZH2cmCoois/Rckm9lScw4I/AAAAAAAAAts/catxe8xcpPA/s400/figure+22-03.jpg
Overall, an animal and human may share similar enzymes but that does not necessarily mean that they have the same genetic code to produce that enzyme. If the animal has a greater similarity percentage, then the changes are greater that, that those two DNA strands had the same codons. Although it just takes one nucleotide to be altered and it changes the whole amino acid.
References Di Giuseppe, Maurice, Vavitsas, A., Ritter, Dr. Bob, & F., Douglas (2003). Biology 12. Canada: Thomson Nelson. Moran, Laurence A. 07 Feb. 2007. Sandwalk. The Real Genetic Code. http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_DZH2cmCoois/Rckm9lScw4I/AAAAAAAAAts/catxe8xcpPA/s400/figure+22-03.jpg Materon, Luis A. General Microbiology. Protein Synthesis. http://www.utpa.edu/faculty/materon/3401/mainimages/protein_ synthesis.gif Clip Art for all Photos