Animals In Disasters Livestock In Disasters David K. Bishop* Reproductive Design Services, Sampson Community College
Animals in Disasters Goals = Certification: Specializing in Thoughts & Options
Swine Density NCDA: 2002 Poultry Density
Pets In Society • Importance of “Pets as Companions” • Mental Health issues • Guilt • Bereavement • ANGER $20 – 30 Billion in Pet Products (1997) “Babe”
Animal “Ownership” 50% of households own pets (# dogs ~ children) Reasons noted: • Personal pleasure/companionship • Educational experience for children • Replacement of persons deceased or void • Personal and property protection • Rescued from neglect • Support of family through care of animals • God-given right (Genesis 1:26)
Measures of / Influences “EMS” AVMA – “ Animal welfare is a human responsibility includes: proper housing, management, nutrition, disease prevention and treatment, responsible care, humane handling, and when necessary, humane euthanasia.” All Plans state: People > Animals Annually ~ 300,000 people do not evacuate
Scenarios Train carrying propane derails… Hurricane separates owners from horses… Tornado knocks over a tank of herbicide… Floods cause drowning of animals on farms… During heat wave, there is a power failure…
Risk Factors for Evac. Failure 20.9% Households with Pets: 16.3% without • Decreased with children (regardless of Pets) • Increased 50% per additional dog or cat (x-Kids) 90 % evacuees stayed with friends/family • 82% stayed with pet • 7-18% pets at familiar location: people elsewhere • 3-10% board at kennel
Risk Factors for Evac. Failure Short duration incident: • 50.6% failed to evacuate pets • 10 % neither evacuated nor rescued • Challenges • “not gone long” (70-97%) • “did not know where to take pets” (20%) Longer duration: • 22.2% left pets • 16.7 % made no attempt to rescue Statistic: Turnover rate of dogs (14%) and cats (18%)
Foundations for Pet Evacuations KEYS: Responsible pet ownership Strong Human (child) : animal bond Certain related Activities: • Regular Vet attention • Socializing behaviors • Obedience training • Pet carriers • Cats caught/transported regularly
Measures of / Influences “EMS” Primary (Traditional) Concerns: • Spoiling human food and water • Animal bites and human injuries • Zoonotic diseases Emerging values: • Medical and Psychological trauma • Pro- will fight for animal concerns • Con- anaphylactic shock if inhale cat dander • Unsafe Rescue attempts • Evacuation failures / re-entry attempts Animals are not “Inanimate”
Unit 2 Quiz 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8 9 10.
Unit 2 Quiz 1. True, disaster preps begin with personal safety. 2. False, individual is 1st layer: education support FEMA 3. True, US animals > $90 Billion national income 4.True, food, bites, zoonosis are top 3 5.False, strong evidence exists…animals increase QOL 6.False, food sources may be damaged… 7.False. People > pets 8. True, shelters must protect people who …animals 9. B. increases in Pet industry revenues 10. C. > 59% consider pets important to family values
Huge Advantage to NIMS Approach Much of what will happen is predictable… Many strategies apply to all emergencies Partnerships improve responsiveness • personal investment in planning • local interest groups • business and private industries • governmental authority/responsibility A Global strategy model for efforts
Personal Scenario Going to a horse show with the High-point 2-yr old Filly in IBHA Left early, so had time but was running late due to wife’s schedule of “need to do’s” Riding down county road, hit a bump and the saddle fell against dash…reached to move saddle causing truck to veer left…hit bridge. Damaged horse, trailer truck and pride…lost high point and today look at mare … MITIGATE, PREPARE, RESPONSE, RECOVERY
4 Phases of Emergency Management Mitigation: • Prevent, reduce frequency, minimize damage • Take place before and after an emergency Preparedness: • Save lives, respond and rescue • Before the emergency Response: • Save lives, prevent further damage • Take place during the event Recovery: • Return to “normal” or better status • Occur after the emergency
C Olsen UWI-Madison Swine-flu Model
StateAnimalResponseTeam Katrina, et al. 2005
Responsibility “Tree” Slide 1 Ultimate responsibility =Animal Owner 1st Level and Most Effective (?) Local Government -protect citizens and property EMS system Develop plans Warning Systems Provide resources Rescue Ops Recovery/Normality Activate/Deactivate “Chain of Command”
Responsibility “Tree” Slide 2 Community/County Support-economic, personal welfare C.A.R.T.Volunteers Non-impacted Individuals/Corp. State Government -Focused on Communities and Structures State Resources, policy guidance, and Federal support Federal Government –Source of Education and Management Guidance Insurance Planning Assessing Ultimate Recovery
Unit 3 Quiz 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8 9 10.
Unit 3 Quiz 1. False, Mitigation occurs with recovery 2.False, get blame but Individuals are responsible… 3.True, during event…save lives/minimize damage 4.True, State’s assistance requested –chain of command 5.False, most activity at Local level-Fed. are “Uncle” 6.False, response activities are during event. 7. D., Recovery and mitigation happen after… 8. A., rules and regs on building are mitigation efforts. 9. A., Local rules dictate local plans (as long as agree). 10. Personal, Local, State, Federal
Types of Hazards Meteorological (weather related) Thunderstorms Floods Tornados Hurricanes Winter storms Drought Wildfire Geological (tera related) Landslides Earthquakes Tsunami Volcanoes Dam Issues Technological (man-made) Hazardous materials (static and released) Nuclear presence (contained/low level + “accidents”) Terrorism Zoonotic Diseases Highway accidents
Unique Characteristics/Commonalities Thunderstorms(100,000 + storms per year) Lightning kills 2-300 humans, grazing livestock, starts fires (hundreds of million $) National Weather Service
Unit 4 Quiz Thunderstorms 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8 9 10.
Unit 4 Quiz: Thunderstorms 1. True, lightening is deadly (7-8 K cows on pasture) 2. True, lightening causes most wildfires (- ignorance) 3. False, warning is conclusive evidence of area 4. True, Fencing around trees reduces lightening strikes 5. True, generally less grounding 6. False, stay away from single, tallest link to ”ground” 7. True, watch for entry and exit burns: no stray voltage 8. D. opposites 9. D. insurance = mitigation 10. A. carriers provide security + rapid removal
Unique Characteristics/Commonalities Floods(hurricanes, thunderstorms, fires, dam breaks… concentrated run-off) > 300,000 people leave homes, > 200 flood related fatalities, $2 Billion damage Animal risks: hypothermia, drowning, …starvation, salt toxicity, bacterial contaminants, “flocking” issues, exposure to hazards Agencies: National Weather Service, State, County & Local Authorities
Unit 4 Quiz Floods 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8 9 10.
Unit 4 Quiz Floods 1. False, some fungus are steroidogenic… 2. True, speed of water encroachment impacts readiness 3. True, bacterial issues prevail in flood water… 4. True, security of vaults is challenged by … 5. False, decision = high ground or confinement 6. True, escapees occur after damage covers fences 7. False, cars stalling = # 1 mistake: waiting = # 2 8. C., possible in area = watch 9. B., prepare before event: replenish before needed 10. D., dry and sunlight kill bacteria
Unique Characteristics/Commonalities Tornadoes Violently rotating columns of air: Anywhere & Anytime National Weather Service Local National Weather Service
Unit 4 Quiz: Tornadoes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8 9 10.
Unit 4 Quiz: Tornadoes 1. False, T-storms and Hurricanes spawn tornadoes 2. True, less surface area to impact…floods? 3. False, move away from mobile homes 4. True, compare structure vs debris 5. True, shame on you, but least of evils 6. True, highly variable but within ranges 7. True, all other activity ceases immediately = CYA 8. True, “some” better than “none”- safety = time 9. D. Networks for warning are mitigation. 10. B. Flying objects are during event.
Unique Characteristics/Commonalities Hurricanes New Maximum Damage Each Year Emerging Technologies for Predictions but, Little Change in Responses National Weather Service
Unique Characteristics/Commonalities Hurricane ____________
Unit 4 Quiz: Hurricanes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8 9 10.
Unit 4 Quiz: Hurricanes 1. True, almost always some flooding (25 year: 24 hr storm) 2. True, most last 6 mo-1 year …maximum impact 3. False, too late at coast…traffic inland 4. False, eye is generally calm before the storm 5. True, maybe not immediate but recognizable 6. False, maximum at beach front: normally? 7. D., Coastal regions (Atlantic or Pacific) 8. C., conditions not evidence within 24 hr.= watch 9. D., expectations = warning 10. B., Advisories update critical statistics
Unique Characteristics/Commonalities Winter Storms National Weather Service
Unit 4 Quiz: Winter Storms (discussion) 1. False, wear multiple, light-weight, protective 2. True, Tough to estimate severity- rapid challenges 3. True, “some” watch contaminants, and cold 4. False, Suit buildup can cause fires 5. True, Drifts over roads, seasonal access to land 6. False, Cold alone challenges heart. Do necessities. 7. False, nutrient demands increase in cold, wet, wind 8. C., Water falling + freezing on surface = Ice 9. B., Expected = watch Immanent= Warning 10. D., Blizzard warning = >35 MPH + heavy snow
Unique Characteristics/Commonalities Drought and Extreme Heat • “no substantial” rainfall for period • > 10 0 F above average high temperature-several weeks • # 1 reason for heat stroke is “left in parked cars” Alerts published in newspapers, local weather advisories Wildfires • Uncontrolled burning grass, brush, woodlands… • Probability forecasts by National Weather Service, US Forest Service and State Forestry Agencies Alerts Posted on Signs, broadcast on Radio & TV
Signs of Heat Stress Excessive Panting: evaporative cooling Body Temperature 104 F – loss of control Collapse- blood flow to core reduced (coma) Increased heart and respiration- rate vs volume Salivation – clear to foamy (air:water ratio) Depression/stupor – brain damage if not cooled
Remedies for Heat Stress Shade- radiant heat Water –nature’s coolant- blood volume Minimum exercise- base on Adaptation, fitness, and rest periods (dehydration = water w/o salts) Animals that don’t sweat = do not obstruct panting, provide cooled floods and air flow Avoid clothing – convective cooling or sweating Cages need > airflow – > 10 times minimum venting Salt (minerals) as needed – cramps, osmotic psi (Kidneys)
Unit 4 Quiz: Drought and Heat 1. False, not safe, but may be necessary 2. True, shade, cool water and breeze = max cooling 3. False, Dogs and hogs do not sweat. 4. True, same as 2 above: animals cool by drying 5. False, salt is toxic w/o water but necessary nutrient 6. True, avoid shock – cool blood in extremedies 7. False, you stay in there for a while…# 1 killer 8. True, absent imports: droughts cause starvation 9. C., extreme body temps. Indicate loss of control 10. B., 10 degrees above average temp = extreme
Unit 4 Quiz: Wildfires 1. False, primary cause = humans, lightening… 2. True, barns contain combustibles – separate ignition 3. True, any port in a storm- watch contaminants 4. False, burns often result in trauma & bacterial issues 5. False, evacuate then see if the equipment works 6.True, nails, tin and other metals don’t burn 7.True, Floods and mudslides often follow fires 8. False, homing instincts kick in after fear subsides 9. A., lung challenges kill most animals after fires 10. B., fire seasons are hot and dry
Unique Characteristics/Commonalities Geological Hazards (tera firma…) Landslides and mudflows • Down slope movement of rock, soil & debris • People encroaching, removing cover, • Dam issues: Control of water release, burrowing animals, plant roots, holding fluids against designed pressure gradients • Behind wildfires, floods and hurricanes…
Unit 5 Quiz: Landslides 1. True, 2. True, 3. False, 4. True, 5. True, 6. True, 7. False, 8. True, 9. C., 10.A.,
Unique Characteristics/Commonalities Earthquakes • Wavelike movement of earth’s surface… • Seismic activity monitored by US Geological Survey, NOAA and University labs • Actual events not predictable-duration 0-72 hrs Tsunamis • Waves (up to 100 ft) created at coastline-event near or far…repeated 20/30 min. for several hrs. • Deaths occur by “scoping out” new coastline