slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Scores PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Scores

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 52

Scores

13 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Scores

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Astronomy 100Tuesday, Thursday 2:30 - 3:45 pmTom Burbinetburbine@mtholyoke.eduwww.xanga.com/astronomy100

  2. Scores • The highest score in the class currently is a 97% • The lowest score in the class currently is a 33% • (Assuming their test grades remain the same for the rest of the class and actually calculating their HW and PRS scores)

  3. Class Average • The exam average for the class is 72.2%. • If I assume everybody gets 100% for HW and PRS scores and that this exam average does not change for the remaining tests: • Class average = 80% x 72.2% + 20% x 100% • Class average = 77.8% • After all the exams, this class average should rise to above 80%

  4. Schedule • Today (Quasars, Dark Matter) • Thursday (end and beginning of the universe) • May 3 (Does Life Exist Elsewhere in the Universe) • May 5 (Review) • May 10 (Exam 4) • May 12 (Exam 5) (optional) • May 20 (Final) (optional)

  5. Exam 4 • Know the class notes • Know all the definitions on the website • Know the Summary of Key Concepts at the end of every chapter

  6. Exam 5 and Final • Know the class notes • Know how to do every question on the 1st 4 exams • Know the Summary of Key Concepts at the end of every chapter

  7. OWL assignment (Due Thursday) • There is be an OWL assignment due on Thursday April 28 at 11:59 pm. • There are 15 questions and a perfect score will give you 2 homework points.

  8. Homework Assignment(Due by May 3) • Make up a test question for next test • Multiple Choice • A-E possible answers • 1 point for handing it in • 1 point for me using it on test • The question needs to be on material that will be on the 4th exam

  9. Homework Assignment(Due by May 5) • I have placed 40 terms on the website • You get 0.1 of a HW point for each of these you define and hand in to me • Definitions need to be hand-written or hand-typed • A lot of these definitions will be on next test

  10. Drake Equation Dark Energy Tully-Fisher Relation ALH84001 Cepheid Variable White Dwarf Jocelyn Bell Viking Mission Hubble’s Law SETI Big Bang COBE Standard Candle Quasar Planck Time Inflation in the Early Universe Olber’s Paradox Cosmic Microwave Background Isotope Baryon Percival Lowell Redshift Dark Matter MACHO Critical Density Radio Galaxy Main Sequence Fitting Cosmological Horizon White Dwarf Supernova Interstellar Medium Supercluster WIMPS Pulsar Habitable Zone Maunder Minimum Convection Zone Radiation Zone Hubble’s Constant Starburst Galaxy Europa

  11. Astronomy Help Desk • There is an Astronomy Help Desk in Hasbrouck 205. • It is open Monday through Thursday from 7-9 pm.

  12. Hubble’s Constant • v = d x Ho • d = v/Ho • d = distance the galaxy is from you • v = velocity the galaxy is moving away from us

  13. Example • A galaxy is moving away from us at a speed of 6,000 km/s • How far is it away from us? • Ho = 71 km/s/megaparsec • d = v/Ho • d = (6,000 km/s)/(71 km/s/megaparsec) • D = 84.5 megaparsecs

  14. Active Galactic Nuclei • Active Galactic Nuclei are the unusually bright centers found in some galaxies

  15. M87 Elliptical Galaxy

  16. Quasars • Quasars are the brightest active galactic nuclei • Emit immense amounts of radiation • Some are brighter than 1,000 Milky Ways

  17. Quasars • Look like stars • But have huge redshifts

  18. Radio Galaxies • A galaxy that emits unusually large quantities of radio waves • Thought to contain an active galactic nuclei

  19. Power • Active Galactic Nuclei, Quasars, and Radio Galaxies are thought to be powered by supermassive black holes • They can exceed 1 billion solar masses

  20. Energy • Energy from the black holes comes from its gravity • Gravity converts potential into kinetic • Collisions convert kinetic into thermal energy • Photons carry this thermal energy away

  21. Very Efficient • E=mc2 • 10-40% of the energy of the accreting material is released as radiation before the matter crosses the event horizon • More efficient than fusion, which turns less than 1% of the mass of the material into energy

  22. Dark Matter • Matter we infer to exist from its gravitational affects but from what we detect no light • Dark matter dominates the mass of the Universe

  23. Rotation curve Plot showing orbital velocities Of gas and stars

  24. Milky Way Galaxy • The mass of dark matter may be 10 times the mass of visible matter • Visible matter is stars

  25. Spiral Galaxies

  26. Why is Dark Matter Important? • The Universe is believed to proceed along two paths • It may continue to expand forever • Or it may stop expanding and collapse • Its fate is dependent on the density of matter

  27. Elliptical Galaxies • The orbits of stars in elliptical galaxies are disorganized

  28. Elliptical Galaxies • Since some stars are moving towards us and some are moving away from us • Spectral lines are broadened

  29. Elliptical Galaxies • Velocities of stars stay relatively constant as you move from galactic center • Ellipticals contain dark matter

  30. However • We can’t determine the amount of dark matter in an elliptical galaxy • Because we can’t measure their masses as far from their centers

  31. Mass-to-Light Ratio • You can compare the measured mass to the luminosity of a galaxy

  32. Milky Way • Milky Way contains 90 billion solar masses of material within the Sun’s orbit • Luminosity of Milky Way at this orbit is 15 billion solar luminosities • Mass-to-Light ratio of our Galaxy at this orbit is 6 solar masses per solar luminosities

  33. This tells us that … • The value of 6 solar masses per solar luminosity tells us that most of the matter is dimmer than the Sun out to the Sun’s orbit • Mass-to-Light ratio of our Sun is 1 solar mass per solar luminosity • So most matter is dimmer than the Sun

  34. For some .. • For some galaxies, they have mass-to-light ratios of 50 solar masses to solar luminosity • This is too high to be accounted for by stars alone

  35. Fritz Zwicky (1898-1974) • Was among the first to suggest that there is a relationship between supernovae and neutron stars • Suggested in the 1930s that dark matter was found in Galactic Clusters

  36. Cluster • Cluster is a collection of galaxies (that can number dozens to thousands) that are gravitationally bound

  37. Zwicky • By calculating the speed of galaxies as the rotate around in a cluster • He found that galaxies in the clusters had huge mass-to-light ratios

  38. Types of Dark Matter • MACHOs • WIMPS

  39. MACHOs • Massive Compact Halo Objects • Includes • Brown Dwarfs – failed stars • Faint red stars • Jupiter-sized objects

  40. WIMPs • Weakly interacting massive particles • No electrical charge • Do not emit electromagnetic radiation • Have mass so do interact some with matter

  41. Neutrinos • Dark matter in galaxies can’t be neutrinos because neutrinos escape from galaxies with enormous speeds