3rd level; the “so what” you are trying to prove Proof of evidence/data Served by QUALIFIER (the probability or the degree of how sure the arguer is) Served by REBUTTAL (acknowledges limitations or exceptions) • *Logos/Ethos • Built by: • Evidence • Source Credibility • Analysis and Reasoning • *Logos/Pathos • Built by: • Fact • Judgment • Policy CONCLUSION MINOR PREMISE CLAIM GROUNDS THE TOULMIN MODEL *Think of it like a scale. It’s all about balance and completing the formula. WARRANT The link that holds together the claim and the grounds. MAJOR PREMISE Built by: ethos, logos, pathos, and shared values Served by BACKING (provides additional justification
WARRANT The major premise. Without this “general” idea and backing to support your reasoning, you don’t have a target goal or audience to consider. CLAIM The conclusion. This is your main goal, the third level, your “so what”. This is your chance to learn how to have confidence in your voice. It’s about believing what you are arguing. GROUNDS The minor premise. Without evidence, you lack the ability to make a concrete argument. In addition, you don’t shoulder the counterargument when you avoid the limitations or exceptions to consider.