Child and Lifespan Development Chapter 18: Safety and Health
Journal • Read the old saying. Write a paragraph about what you think it may mean. “Feed a Cold, Starve a Fever”
State Standards • Standard 4.4: Analyze necessary components of a healthy , safe, and stimulating environment during the infant and toddler stages. • Standard 5.4: Analyze necessary components of a healthy , safe, and stimulating environment during preschool years. • Standard 6.4: Analyze necessary components of a healthy , safe, and stimulating environment during middle childhood. • Standard 7.4: Analyze necessary components of a healthy , safe, and stimulating environment during adolescence.
Definition Carousel • Around the room find white boards with one word on each. • Travel around the room and add a comment about the word. It may be a definition or an example. • Only one group at each board at a time!
Section 18-1 Preventing Accidents and Handling Emergencies
Safety • The safety of a child is the most important responsibility of every caregiver! • Each age has it particular hazards because children of different ages have different abilities.
Infants • Falls cause the most injuries among babies • Babies tend to fall head first, causing brain damage. • Never leave a baby unattended. • Babies like to suck and chew on almost anything. This can cause 3 hazards: • Chocking on small objects • Chocking or suffocating on plastic bags • Poisoning- make sure anything that babies could place their mouth on is non toxic • Have the poison control number handy at all times!
Infants, continued • A small child should never be left alone near water • Don’t only think pool! • This includes toilets! • Car accidents cause more accidents among children than any other factor • Use a, approved safety seat. Adult seat belts do not protect children.
Car Seat Laws in Tennessee • Children under 1 or any child weighing less than 20 pounds must be in a rear facing restraint system • Children 1-3 and weighing more than 20 pounds must be in a forward facing restraint system • Children 4-8 and less than 4’9” tall must be in a belt positioning booster seat system
Ages 1-3 • Ages 1-3 need very careful supervision! • Very mobile • Can get into danger quickly • No toddler should be left unattended more than a few minutes- even if they are within hearing distance • Prevent Chocking by teaching toddlers these rules: • stay seated while eating • Always take small bites • Chew all food thoroughly • Swallow before taking another bite • Don’t talk or laugh with food in the mouth • Keep small toys and other small objects out of the mouth
Safe or Not Safe? Are these objects a choking hazard?
Ages 4 and Older • Teach children good safety practices! • Outdoor play equipment should be firmly anchored • The ground should be covered with a soft material to cushion falls • All matches or lighters should be locked away • Caregivers should set and enforce safety rules • Many children are fascinated by fire. All matches and lighters should be locked away.
Guidelines for Fast Action • If a child in your care gets hurt: • Above all, try to remain calm. • Evaluate the situation • Make the victim comfortable • Call for help if necessary • 911, poison control center, your family doctor • Give the minimum necessary first aid treatment
Using Standard Precautions • Reduce your risks of spreading diseases! • Use disposable gloves when changing diapers • Complete thorough, frequent hand washing • Perform proper cleaning of surfaces and disposal of items which may be contaminated • Use special devices for mouth to mouth resuscitation
First Aid • Be familiar with first aid procedures if you are going to be a care giver! • Animal Bites • Wash the area with soap and water • If the animal bit the child with provocation, call the local health department so the animal will be tested for rabies • Bumps and Bruises • Treat with a cold cloth or ice pack • If the child complains for more than 1 day, call a doctor • Call the doctor if the child looses consciousness, is drowsy or irritable, complains with a headache, or vomits
First Aid, continued • Bleeding • Minor cuts and scrapes- stop the bleeding by placing a clean cloth or gauze pad on the wound and pressing hard for 10-15 minutes without releasing • Deep cuts or wounds- if breathing is rapid and sharp send for medical help; try to stop the bleeding by applying a soft cloth or gauze and pressure; try elevation • Nosebleeds- have child sit and lean slightly forward; put pressure on the nose with your fingers just below the bones for several minutes; sometimes cold packs help
First Aid, continued • Burns • 1st degree burns- red and slightly swollen; cover the area with cool water or a cold cloth until the pain stops • 2nd degree burns- deeper, redder, and blistered; use cool water or cloth to start , but should be treated by a physician • 3rd degree burns- destroy the skin, may look white or charred; may be very little pain at first due to destroyed nerve endings; these burns require immediate medical attention • Chemical Burns- wash the affected area immediately with cold water, remove and clothing with the chemical on it (unless it is stuck to the skin), apply a clean bandage, call a doctor • Electrical Burns- may be deep but appear minor, cool area with cool water, cover it with a clean bandage, have patient lie down with legs elevated and head turned to one side (to prevent shock), call for an ambulance
Choking • Recognize the signs of choking: • Inability to speak, breathe, or cry • Bluish lips, nails, and skin • High-pitched noises or ineffective coughing • Act quickly to dislodge the object! • Follow the steps on the next slide
First Aid, continued • Convulsions: a seizure, a period of unconsciousness with uncontrolled jerking or twitching of the muscles • Place the person on his/her side on the floor and away from any hard objects • Don’t attempt to hold the person down • Don’t attempt to place anything between their teeth • After they stop be sure the head is turned to the side to prevent choking • Call the doctor for further instructions • If they last more than 15 minutes, call an ambulance
First Aid, continued • Fainting: loss of consciousness • May collapse without warning or may first experience sweating, cold skin, nausea, or dizziness • Someone who feels faint should lie down or sit with their head between their legs • When a person faints: • loosen any tight clothing • Check to be sure they are still breathing; if not, call 911 and begin CPR, if you are certified • If person is breathing they should regain consciousness within 2 minutes. If not, call for help
First Aid, continued • Fractures and Sprains • Fracture: break or a crack in a bone • Sprain: an injury caused by sudden, violent stretching of a joint or muscle • Both may cause pain, swelling, or bruising • If you suspect a fracture or sprain: • Don’t move person until you know how serious it is, this is especially important for back, neck, and collar bone injuries • Call for medical help • Treat mild sprains by elevating and applying cold ice packs
First Aid, continued • Insect Stings and Bites • Stings- includes bees and wasps • Scrape off stinger • Cover with a baking soda and water paste • If the person is allergic take them to the doctor immediately. Don’t wait for symptoms to begin! • Watch the person. Take them to the doctor if they become dizzy, faint, difficulty breathing, vomiting, hives, or heavy perspiration • Ticks- • Grab the tick with tweezers as close to the skin as possible • Wash the area with soap and water • Mosquito, ant, and chiggers • Baking soda and water paste will give relief
First Aid, continued • Poisoning • From swallowed poisons- difficulty in breathing, unconsciousness, fever, burns in the mouth and throat, vomiting • Skin contact- burns or rash on the skin • Eye contact- burning or irritation to the eyes or blindness • Inhaled- choking, coughing, nausea, dizziness • Steps to Take: • Find out what poisoned the child • Phone the poison control center, hospital, or doctor • Follow the directions you receive
First Aid, continued • Shock- due to severe injury, loss of great deal of blood, poisoning • Important body functions are impaired • Symptoms- rapid pulse, clammy skin, shallow breathing, enlarged pupils, glassy stare, and nausea • Seek medical care immediately • Keep person warm and lying down • Splinters and Thorns • Can become infected • Use sterilized tweezers to remove it then cover with a sterile bandage
Rescue Techniques • Artificial Respiration- procedure for forcing air into the lungs of a person whose breathing has stopped • Wear protective face mask and gloves • CPR-cardiopulmonary resuscitation • Used when both breathing and heart have stopped • Special training is needed to perform CPR
Activity • Each student will create a first aid book • Each book should have all of these topics: • Table of Contents • Animal Bites • Bleeding • Bumps and Bruises • Burns • Choking • Convulsions • Fainting • Fractures/ Sprains • Insect Stings and Bites • Poisoning • Shock • Splinters and Thorns • Emergency Phone Numbers
Section 18-2 Preventing Illness and Caring for a Sick Child
Journal • Make a list of words describing how you felt the last time you were sick • Now make a list of words describing how you feel when you are well • Which set of feelings is more enjoyable?
Regular Health Care • Children should have regular checkups • Newborns require frequent checkups through the year. • Older children less frequent but at least 1 time a year • Call the doctor for these symptoms: fever, lack of energy, prolonged diarrhea, constipation, vomiting, difficulty breathing, persistent cough, severe headache, and dizziness
Immunizations • Immunize- to protect a person against a particular disease • Communicable disease- diseases that are easily passed from one person to another • Vaccine- small amount of disease-carrying germ introduced into the body so the body can build a resistance to it • Antibodies- the body produces antibodies that fight off germs for that disease
Allergies • Allergy- an oversensitivity to one or more common substances • Allergies can be brought on by eating, breathing, or touching substances • Symptoms can range from a rash to life threatening reactions • Allergies can’t be cured • Medication might be prescribed to help control the allergy • Some people have allergies so severe they carry a medication called an epi-pen to be used in emergency situations
Asthma • Asthma- a condition that affects the lungs where air passages tighten making it difficult to breathe • Can be brought on by: • allergic reaction • cold or flu • Cold Air • Stress • Etc • Children with asthma can take medication to help open their airways
Caring for a Sick Child • Contagious- the period of time when a person can easily pass germs on to someone else • People who are contagious should stay inside and away from other people • Sometimes children need pain relief or medicine to reduce a fever • Use Tylenol or Motrin • Make sure you following the dosing guidelines on the bottle
Comforting a Sick Child • Sick children need extra love and sympathy • Children who are ill don’t have much energy for play • Children of different ages have different needs when ill • Infants: much more sleep, cranky, may want a lot of physical comfort; gently rock, talk softly , sing, and hold the baby close • Ages 1-3: need help keeping comfortable and occupied, staying in bed is difficult, quiet play • Ages 4-12: can help care for themselves; have better verbal skills; can enjoy playing quietly
Going to the Hospital • Hospitalized children may fear that their parents have abandoned them • They may be frightened that they will be hurt or they will die • If a hospital stay is scheduled for the future if may be a good idea to visit the hospital ahead of time • While in the hospital as much information as possible should be given to the child • Be honest- don’t tell them it won’t hurt if it will!
Identifying and Treating Diseases • Assignment- • Each group will put together a presentation on a disease that is included on the chart on pages 568-569 • Include: • Causes of the disease • Symptoms of the Disease • Treatment • Pictures