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Ancient Eastern Mediterranean

Ancient Eastern Mediterranean

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Ancient Eastern Mediterranean

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  1. Ancient Eastern Mediterranean Mr. Stikes

  2. SSWH1 The student will analyze the origins, structures, and interactions of complex societies in the ancient Eastern Mediterranean from 3500 BCE to 500 BCE. • Describe the development of Mesopotamian societies; include the religious, cultural, economic, and political facets of society, with attention to Hammurabi’s law code. b. Describe the relationship of religion and political authority in Ancient Egypt. c. Explain the development of monotheism; include the concepts developed by the ancient Hebrews, and Zoroastrianism. d. Describe early trading networks in the Eastern Mediterranean; include the impact Phoenicians had on the Mediterranean World. e. Explain the development and importance of writing; include cuneiform, hieroglyphics, and the Phoenician alphabet.

  3. Goal To analyze the origins, structures, and interactions of complex societies in the ancient Eastern Mediterranean from 3500 BCE to 500 BCE

  4. WHO?

  5. Who? • Egyptians • Babylonians • Sumerians • Akkadians • Hebrews • Persians • Phoenicians

  6. WHERE?

  7. The Mediterranean

  8. The Eastern Mediterranean Greece IRAQ

  9. WHEN?

  10. 3500 BCE – 500 BCE • BCE • Stands for “Before Common Era” • Equivalent to B.C.

  11. Development of Mesopotamian Societies PURPOSE OF SECTION: • Describe the development of Mesopotamian societies; include the religious, cultural, economic, and political facets of society, with attention to Hammurabi’s law code.

  12. Development of Mesopotamian Societies • How did Mesopotamian societies begin develop? • Immigration into the region • Nomads moved south from the Anatolia • Settled in Mesopotamia – “land between the rivers”

  13. Where is Mesopotamia? • Eastern Mediterranean • Between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

  14. Why Mesopotamia? • Fertile land for agriculture • Easy access to natural resources

  15. “Fertile Crescent” • Mesopotamia is sometimes called the Fertile Crescent • The Fertile Crescent extends to the Mediterranean

  16. Sumerian Civilization • Settled in lower portion of Tigris-Euphrates river valley • Sometimes called: • “birthplace of cities” • “cradle of civilization”

  17. Sumer • By 3000 B.C., at least twelve city-states had been founded by the Sumerians. • Cities were walled • Each worshipped an individual deity • Each had a ziggurat in the center of the city

  18. ZIGGURATS A ziggurat was a temple made of sun-dried bricks and probably decorated with colored tiles. Each was dedicated to a particular deity. Only a priest was allowed at the top of a ziggurat.

  19. Sumerian Religion • Polytheistic • Viewed deities as unpredictable • Religious ceremonies and rituals as a way to keep gods/goddesses happy • Believed in afterlife with no light/air • Important Deities: (and area of responsibility) • An – Seasons, sky • Enlil – Winds and agriculture

  20. Sumerian Government • Sumerian cities were self-governing. • Originally, a council of nobles or an assembly of citizens ran the government. • Eventually, military leaders were selected as kings. • Kingship became hereditary. • A Sumerian king was also the high priest

  21. Unification of Sumer • The Sumerian city-states were first unified by Etana, the king of the city-state of Kish, c. 2800 B.C. • In the aftermath, four major city-states (Kish, Erech, Ur and Lagash) would fight for control of all the Sumerian city-states, causing internal weaknesses.

  22. Sumerian Accomplishments • Technological Advances • Bronze • Wagon wheel • Arch • Metal Plow • Potter’s wheel • Sundial • Number system based on 60 • 12 month calendar based on cycles of moon

  23. Sumerian Accomplishments • In society • First codes of law • First city-states • Epic Poetry (Epic of Gilgamesh) • Written Language (cuneiform)

  24. Epic of Gilgamesh • Epic Poem • Oldest story in the world • c.1850 B.C. • Gilgamesh was a young king of Uruk • Epic follows his search for immortality • Contains a flood story reminiscent of the Noah in the Bible

  25. Writing • Cuneiform dates to c.3100 B.C. • Wedge-shaped markings on wet clay, which was then dried or baked until hard • Began with pictograms, but eventually developed complex symbols

  26. Akkadian Empire • Around 2300 B.C.E., Sargon I assumed power in Akkad, a city north of Sumer • According to legend, Sargon’s mother set him afloat in a reed basket shortly after his birth. He was found and raised by a farmer downstream.

  27. Akkadian Empire

  28. Akkadian Empire • Akkadians were ethnically different from Sumerians. • Akkad – Semitic • The Akkadians adopted the Sumerian religion, but kept their own language • Sargon I built the first empire in the world

  29. Babylon • The next great empire was that of the Babylonians • Hammurabi, the most famous King of Babylon, ruled from c. 1728-1686 B.C.

  30. Hammurabi’s Law Code • Hammurabi is most famous for his law code • Hammurabi created a law code of 282 laws written on 12 tablets • The laws were written in Akkadian, the language of the people

  31. Hammurabi’s Law Code • For each offense, there was a specified punishment • Hammurabi’s laws were rather harsh • Generally were “eye for an eye” • Notable Features: • Innocent until proven guilty • Able to introduce evidence to support you • Divided society into 3 social classes • Rich/Patrician • Landless Freemen • Slaves

  32. Hammurabi’s Law Code • Written on a stele (large monument of stone) and placed in the center of the city • Had picture of a god giving laws to Hammurabi, perhaps signifying that no king is above the law

  33. Conclusion • Religion in Mesopotamia • Economics in Mesopotamia • Culture in Mesopotamia • Politics in Mesopotamia

  34. Conclusion: Religion • Sumerian religion dominated the region • Polytheistic • Sense of hopelessness based on unpredictability

  35. Conclusion: Economics • Sumer was the first civilization to develop widespread, permanent agriculture • Sumer developed the first cities • In Mesopotamia, the economy depended on agriculture.

  36. Conclusion: Economics • Excess food supplies were traded to nearby peoples for metals and other natural resources • The development of cities and empires encouraged trade

  37. Conclusion: Culture • Mesopotamian society was divided: • Top – nobles • Middle – merchants, landless citizens • Bottom – slaves • Writing developed

  38. Conclusion: Politics • Sumer • Developed city-states • Akkadian Empire • Sargon I is first to establish an empire • Code of Hammurabi • Influenced modern law codes • “Eye for an eye” • Concept of innocent until proven guilty • Evidence must be presented to prove guilt

  39. Religion and Politics in Ancient Egypt PURPOSE OF SECTION: • Describe the relationship of religion and political authority in Ancient Egypt

  40. Where is Egypt?

  41. Egypt Basics • Unified first by Narmer (or Menes) • Capital at Memphis • Dynasty – a line of rulers from one family • Theocracy – government headed by religious leaders • Pharaoh – Egyptian king

  42. Egypt Basics • Organized into three periods called kingdoms: • Old Kingdom • Pyramids • Middle Kingdom • Moved capital to Thebes • Defeated by Hyksos • New Kingdom • Ramses the Great • Akhenaton and Tutankhamen

  43. Pyramids • Pyramids were tombs for Pharaohs

  44. Egypt Basics • Writing • Hieroglyphics for official works (usually carved on stone) • Hieratic for daily religious use • Demotic for daily government use • Rosetta Stone • Found by French under Napoleon • Allows us to read hieroglyphics

  45. Egyptian Politics • Pharaoh as sole ruler • Developed bureaucracy to support the central government

  46. Egyptian Religion • Polytheistic • Often represented as part human and part animal • Important deities • Ra – sun god • Osiris – god of the Nile and of all living things • Isis – wife of Osiris

  47. Egyptian Religion • Stresses the importance of the afterlife • Nile flooding was consistent, leading Egyptians to believe that the gods and goddesses were fair and could be persuaded through worship

  48. Relationship Between Religion and Politics • Pharaoh is both king and god • Religion and Politics are intertwined • Disobeying a law from Pharaoh meant disobeying a god

  49. Early Trading Civilizations of the Eastern Mediterranean PURPOSE OF SECTION: • Describe early trading networks in the Eastern Mediterranean; include the impact Phoenicians had on the Mediterranean World. • Describe other early civilizations of the Eastern Mediterranean

  50. Early Trading Civilizations of the Eastern Mediterranean • This section will cover the following trading civilizations: • Hittite • Aramaean • Lydian • Phoenician • Assyrian • Chaldean • Persian • Israelite (Hebrew)