Writing Folders: • Seafarer timed essay • Beowulf timed essay • Elegy poem • Extended analogy essay • Chaucerian stanza poem • The Canterbury Tales Prologue essay
Drafting schedule: • Today: Write support paragraphs • Thursday: Receive revision/editing prompts • Completed rough draft due Friday for added revisions and editing – 20 points • Final draft due next Wednesday – 100 points
Italicize all titles, including the individual tales • Cite page numbers for inserted quotations • Include a MLA heading and title Peters
Middle Ages Unit Test Format • Thursday: 50 points Involves matching/multiple choice questions which cover medieval history, romance (including Sir Gawain) and the General Prologue. • Friday: 40 points Involves seven identification//defintions and two short answer responses that cover the four tales (Pardoner/Wife/Nun’s Priest/Miller)
Middle Ages Test Review • Compare and contrast the elements of a feudalistic society with the aspects of a democratic society. • Why is “Sir Gawain and the Green Knight” a medieval romance? • Delineate how the structure and roles of feudalism were dismantled due to the onset of the Bubonic Plague.
Pilgrim identification • ______________1. A lover and cadet, a lad of fire/With locks as curly as if they had been pressed./ He was some twenty years of age, I guessed. • ______________2. He’d sewed a holy relic on his cap;/ His wallet lay before him on his lap,/ Brimful of pardons come from Rome, all hot./ He had the same small voice a goar has got. • ______________3. Broad, knotty and short-shouldered, he would boast/ He could heave any door off hinge and post./ His beard, like any sow or fox, was red/ And broad as well, as though it were a spade.
Pilgrim identification • ______________4. He watched his patients closely for the hours/ When, by his horoscope, he knew the powers/ Of favorable planets, then ascendant./ Worked on the images for his dependent. • ______________5. Truth, honor, generousness, and courtesy,/ He had done nobly in his sovereign’s war/ Just home from service, he had joined our ranks/ To do his pilgrimage and to render thanks. • ______________6. The Rule of good St. Benet or St. Maur/ As old and strict he tended to ignore;/ He let go by the things of yesterday/ And took the modern world’s more spacious way.
Pilgrim identification • ______________7. by his bed/ He preferred having twenty books in red/ And black, or Aristotle’s philosophy,/ Than costly clothes, fiddle, or psaltery. • ______________8. Many a load of dung one time or other/ He must have carted through the morning dew./ He was an honest worker, good and true. • ______________9. This ______________ wore a coat and hood of green/ and peacock-feathered arrows bright and keen/ and neatly sheathed, hung at his belt the while/ For he could dress his gear in __________________ style.
Quiz: The Miller’s Tale • Fabliau: comic verse; a comic and often bawdy story in verse, especially of a kind popular in 12th- and 13th-century France • Question: Describe how The Miller’s Tale qualifies as a fabliau.
Of the three tales you have read, Which is the best tale . . . • According to Chaucer’s purpose? • According to the host’s purpose? • According to a contemporary reader’s purpose? • According to you?
Wife of Bath’s TaleDiscussion Prompt What can the reader infer about Chaucer’s view of the Wife of Bath from the tale he has given her?
Calendar Adjustments: • Thursday: Memorizations due • Friday: TheWife of Bath’s Prologue/Tale quiz • Monday: The Miller’s Tale quiz • Tuesday: Unit test review • Wednesday:The Nun’s Priest’s Tale due
The Canterbury TalesSmall Group Discussion • Discuss the assigned topic within your group. Include several textual examples that are covered throughout the General Prologue. • Take detailed notes, as these will serve you well in preparation for next Wednesday’s timed essay on the General Prologue. • Share your findings with Mrs. Peters.
The Pardoner’s Talequiz/20 points • An exemplum is a brief moral story. In one paragraph, explain how the plot, characters and conflict of The Pardoner’s Tale combine to provide an exemplum. • In a second paragraph, discuss how the Pardoner’s prologue is a fittingly ironic opening to his tale. • Keep both paragraphs to a total of one page.
Sample Chaucerian Stanza in IAMBIC PENTAMETER:unstressed/stressed---5 stresses per line • To the beautiful city of Jerusalem I hath been thrice, • And all the men’s attention I will entice. • Blood red, you see, is the color of my fine hose; • To match my face is as crimson as a rose. • A gap as wide as a valley between my teeth, • With a kerchief upon my head that’s like a wreath. • If you have trouble with love, then come to me; • I’ll try to provide a cure or helpful remedy. • You’ll see me in church, well-dressed in my big wimple; • I worship God and men---my life’s so simple!
Making inferences about the _____________: “Supple his boots, his horse in fine condition. He was a prelate fit for exhibition. He was not pale like a tormented soul. He like a swan best, roasted and whole.” • Monk
Making inferences about the _____________: “In company she liked to laugh and chat And knew the remedies for love’s mischances, An art in which she knew the oldest dances.” • Wife of Bath City
Making inferences about the _________________: “If, when he fought, the enemy vessel sank, He sent his prisoners home; they walked the plank.” • Skipper
Making inferences about the _____________: “Wide was his parish, with houses far sunder, Yet he neglected not in rain or thunder, In sickness nor in grief, to pay a call On the remotest, whether great or small.” • Parson
Memorization Assignment Options: • 20 points: Write (from memory) the first 18 lines from Chaucer’s General Prologue. • 20 points + 5 bonus points: In class, orally present (from memory) the first 18 lines from Chaucer’s General Prologue. • 20 points + 10 bonus points: In class, orally present (from memory) the first 18 lines from Chaucer’s General Prologue in the Middle English pronunciation. • All presentations due Thursday, October 15.
Elements of a Medieval Romance The medieval romance has a simple, inevitable plot: a near-perfect hero battles an evil enemy and ultimately wins. As part of the story, the hero inevitably undertakes a quest. The quest usually has three stages: a dangerous journey, a moral test or ordeal to determine if the hero truly has the qualities of a hero, and a return to the point of origin from which the journey began.
Sir Gawain and The Green Knight In Sir Gawain we have the model of the chivalric hero whose honor is being tested. This is a serious romance whose purpose is clearly to teach a moral lesson. Yet the hero does not have unlimited powers; Gawain is a human being, who, like all of us, is limited in his moral and physical strength.
Sir Gawain and The Green Knight Discuss examples of behavior which reflect the chivalric code that suggest more than just courtly love (gallantry toward women)---consider loyalty, modesty, faith, honor, valor and courtesy.
Chivalry: Dead or Alive? Consider the question above and find examples from today’s society to prove that chivalry is alive and well or has withered and died in the face of our modern sensibilities and values.
It all began when… Edward the Confessor • No children • Who would become King when he died? • Three men claim the throne after his death
First claim to the throne Harold Godwin • His sister was married to King Edward • Edward was reported to have uttered, “I commend my wife and all my kingdom to your care” on his deathbed to Harold.
Second Claim to the Throne William, Duke of Normandy Claimed King Edward promised him the throne
Third Claim to the Throne Harald Hardrada • Viking king of Denmark • Related to a Viking king that had ruled England from 1016 until 1032 • Believed he should have the crown as a result
What happened? Harold Godwin became King of England Invasions began • September 1066, Harold Hardrada invaded at Stamford Bridge
The Battle • William defeated Harold’s forces at Hastings on October 14, 1066 • Harald was killed and William claimed the throne (thus is he known as “William the Conqueror”) • What famous monarch was named after William I?
Heir to the British throne, Prince William, to one day be King William V of England
William’s England • He did not eliminate the Anglo-Saxons • He combined Norman and Anglo-Saxon elements • A blending of Norman French and English began to evolve, known asMiddle English. • Normans brought administrative ability, increased emphasis on law and order and cultural unity
Domesday Book • 1086 – all property in England inventoried in this book • For the first time, the English could be taxed for what they owned
What else did the Normans bring? • French: Language switched from Old English to Middle English • French became the language of the upper classes and government • Middle English was the spoken language of the peasant class • The Canterbury Tales:first work to be composed in Middle English
Words that come from Norman Britain • Rendezvous • Cliché • Fiancée • Miss/Ms./Mrs. or Mr. • Provenance
They also brought Feudalism King Nobles or barons/vassals/lords Knights Landless knights and peasants
Castles served as “houses” for the functions of the feudal classes
Knighthood • Sons of lords • Age 7: Page • Age 13: Squire (knight in training) • Ages 18-21: Knight • Dubbing ceremony/title of “sir” • Knights were “married” to their lords; they could not marry until they retired.
Medieval Battle Weapons Catapult Trebuchet
Heraldry Colors and symbols assigned to a family for identification purposes Helped knights identify their comrades while in battle
Knightly Code of Chivalry System of ideals and social codes governing the behavior of knights and gentlewomen A major aspect of chivalry was fealty, or loyalty to one’s lord (similar to Anglo-Saxon comitatus) Other aspects: bravery, courage, honor of women (known as courtly love)
Courtly Love Aspect of chivalry Dealt with the relationship between knights and ladies • Lady was always out of the knight’s reach Provided for great literature Led to the creation of the Medieval Romance
Role of Women • Inferior to men • A woman’s rank depended on the rank of her father or husband • Housework and childbearing • Merchants, blacksmiths, midwives • Chivalry brought idealized attitude towards women, but not better treatment
A change in the feudal system • More people = movement to cities and towns • The new merchant class worked outside of the feudal system • Result: feudal system began to disappear • Jobs: baker, smith, cooper, cobbler, haberdasher, cook, fishmonger
Important events of the Middle Ages The Crusades Murder of Thomas Becket Magna Carta The Black Death