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Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Writing Handbook Menu The Writing Process Using the Traits of Strong Writing Writing Modes Research Paper Writing
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK The Writing Process Menu Introduction to the Writing Process Prewriting Drafting Revising Editing/Proofreading Publishing/Presenting
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK The Writing Process Writing is a process with five stages: rewriting, drafting, revising, editing/ proofreading, and publishing/presenting. These stages often overlap, and theirimportance, weight, and even their order vary according to your needs and goals.
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK The Writing Process Because writing is recursive, you almost always have to double back somewherein this process, perhaps to gather more information or to reevaluate your ideas.
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Prewriting Tips for Prewriting • Begin with an interesting idea (what you will write about). • Decide the purpose of the writing (why you are writing). • Identify the audience (for whom you are writing). • Explore your idea through a technique such as freewriting, clustering, making diagrams, or brainstorming.
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Prewriting Tips for Prewriting Freewriting is writing nonstop for a set time, usually only five or ten minutes. The idea is to keep pace with your thoughts, getting them on paper before they vanish. Freewriting can start anywhere and go anywhere.
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Prewriting Tips for Prewriting Clustering begins with writing a word or phrase in the middle of a sheet of paper. Circle the word or phrase; then think of related words and ideas. Write them in bubbles connected to the central bubble. As you cluster, connect related ideas. The finished cluster will be a diagram of how your ideas can be organized.
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Prewriting Tips for Prewriting Brainstorming is creating a free flow of ideas with a group of people—it’s like freewriting with others. Start with a topic or question; encourage everyone to join in freely. Accept all ideas without judgment, and follow each idea as far as it goes. You can evaluate the ideas later.
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Prewriting Tips for Prewriting • Search for information in print and nonprint sources.
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Prewriting Tips for Prewriting • If you are writing a personal essay, all of the information may come from your own experiences and feelings. If you are writing a report or a persuasive essay, you will probably need to locate pertinent factual information and take notes on it. Besides library materials, such as books, magazines, and newspapers, you will want to use the Internet and other online resources. You may also want to interview people with experience or specialized knowledge related to your topic.
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Prewriting Tips for Prewriting • As you gather ideas and information, jot them down on note cards to use as you draft. Evaluate all ideas and information to determine or fine-tune the topic. • Organize information and ideas into a plan that serves as the basis for writing.
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Prewriting Tips for Prewriting • Develop a rough outline reflecting the method of organization you have chosen. Include your main points and supporting details. • Find and include missing information or ideas that might add interest or help accomplish the purpose of the writing.
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Drafting In this stage you translate into writing the ideas and information you gathered during prewriting. Drafting is an opportunity to explore and develop your ideas.
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Drafting Tips for Drafting • Follow the plan made during prewriting, but be flexible. New and better ideas may come to you as you develop your ideas: be open to them.
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Drafting Tips for Drafting • Transform notes and ideas into related sentences and paragraphs, but don’t worry about grammar mechanics. At this point it is usually better to concentrate on getting your ideas on paper. You might want to circle or annotate ideas or sections that need more work.
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Drafting Tips for Drafting • Determine the tone or attitude of the writing. • Try to formulate an introduction that will catch the interest of your intended audience.
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Revising In this stage, review and evaluate your draft to make sure it accomplishes its purpose and speaks to its intended audience. When revising, interacting with a peer reviewer can be especially helpful.
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Revising Using Peer Review Ask one or more of your classmates to read your draft. Here are some specific ways in which you can direct their responses: • Have readers tell you in their own words what they have read. If you do not hear your ideas restated, you will want to revise for clarity.
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Revising Using Peer Review • Ask readers to tell you what parts of your writing the liked best and why. • Discuss the ideas in your writing with your readers. Include any new insights you gain in your revision.
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Revising Using Peer Review • Ask readers for suggestions about things such as organization and word choice. You may want to take notes on your readers’ suggestions so you will have a handy reference as you revise.
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Revising Tips for the Peer Reviewer When you are asked to act as a reviewer for a classmate’s writing, the following tips will help you do the most effective job: • Read the piece all the way through—without commenting—to judge its overall effect. • Tell the writer how you responded to the piece. For example, did you find it informative? interesting? amusing?
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Revising Tips for the Peer Reviewer • Ask the writer about parts you don’t understand. • Think of questions to ask that will help the writer improve the piece. • Be sure that your suggestions are constructive.
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Revising Tips for the Peer Reviewer • Help the writer make improvements. • Answer the writer’s questions honestly. Think about how you would like someone to respond to you.
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Revising Tips for Revising • Be sure you have said everything you wanted to say. If not, add. • If you find a section that does not relate to your topic, cut it. • If your ideas are not in a logical order, rearrange sentences and paragraphs.
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Revising Tips for Revising • Rewrite unclear sentences. • Evaluate your introduction to be sure it creates interest, leads the reader smoothly into your topic, and states your main idea. Also evaluate your conclusion to be sure it either summarizes your writing or effectively brings it to an end.
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Revising Tips for Revising • Evaluate your word choices. Choose vivid verbs and precise nouns. Use a thesaurus to help you. • Consider the comments of your peer reviewer. Evaluate them carefully and apply those that will help you create a more effective piece of writing.
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Editing/Proofreading In the editing stage, you polish your revised draft and proofread it for errors in grammar and spelling. Use the proofreading checklist to help you check for errors, and use the proofreading symbols in the chart on the next slide to mark places that need corrections.
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Editing/Proofreading
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Editing/Proofreading • Have I avoided run-on sentences and sentence fragments and punctuated sentences correctly? • Have I used every word correctly, including plurals, possessives, and frequently confused words?
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Editing/Proofreading • Do verbs and subjects agree? Are verb tenses correct? • Do pronouns refer clearly to their antecedents and agree with them in person, number, and gender?
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Editing/Proofreading • Have I used adverb and adjective forms and modifying phrases correctly? • Have I spelled every word correctly, and checked the unfamiliar ones in a dictionary?
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Publishing/Presenting There are a number of ways you can share your work. You could publish it in a magazine, a class anthology, or another publication, or read your writing aloud to a group. You could also join a writers’ group and read one another’s works.
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Using the Traits of Strong Writing Menu Ideas Organization Voice Word Choice Sentence Fluency Conventions Presentation Preparing a Manuscript
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Ideas The message or the theme and the details that develop it Writing is clear when readers can grasp the meaning of your ideas right away. Check to see whether you’re getting your message across.
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Ideas The message or the theme and the details that develop it • Does the title suggest the theme of the composition? • Do pronouns refer clearly to their antecedents and agree with them in person, number, and gender? • Is the thesis - the main point or central idea - clearly stated? • Do well-chosen details elaborate your main point?
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Organization The arrangement of main ideas and supporting details An effective plan of organization points your readers in the right direction and guides them easily through your composition from start to finish. Find a structure, or order, that best suits your topic and writing purpose. Check to see whether you’ve ordered your key ideas and details in a way that keeps your readers on track.
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Organization The arrangement of main ideas and supporting details • Are the beginning, middle and end clearly linked? • Is the internal order of idea easy to follow? • Does the introduction capture your reader’s attention? • Do sentences and paragraphs flow from one to the next in a way that makes sense? • Does the conclusion wrap up the composition?
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Voice A writer’s unique way of using tone and style Your writing voice comes through when your readers sense that a real person is communicating with them. Readers will respond to the tone (or attitude) that you express toward a topic and to the style (the way that you use language and shape your sentences). Read your work aloud to see whether your writing voice comes through.
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Voice A writer’s unique way of using tone and style • Does writing sound interesting? • Does your writing reveal your attitude towards your topic? • Does your writing sound like you – or does it sound like you’re imitating someone else?
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Word Choice The vocabulary a writer uses to convey meaning Words work hard. They carry the weight of your meaning, so make sure you choose them carefully. Check to see whether the words you choose are doing their jobs well.
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Word Choice The vocabulary a writer uses to convey meaning • Do you use lively verbs to show action? • Do you use vivid words to create word pictures in your readers’ minds? • Do you use precise words to explain your ideas simply and clearly?
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Sentence Fluency The smooth rhythm and flow of sentences that vary in length and style The best writing is made up of sentences that flow smoothly from one sentence to the next. Writing that is graceful also sounds musical—rhythmical rather than choppy. Check for sentence fluency by reading your writing aloud.
Reference WRITING HANDBOOK Sentence Fluency The smooth rhythm and flow of sentences that vary in length and style • Do your sentences vary in length and structure? • Do transition words and phrases show connections between ideas and sentences? • Does parallelism help balance and unify related ideas?