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Web 2.0: Innovation and Sustainability in Destination Marketing

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Web 2.0: Innovation and Sustainability in Destination Marketing

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  1. Web 2.0: Innovation and Sustainability in Destination Marketing Daniel R. Fesenmaier Professor and Director National Laboratory for Tourism & eCommerce Temple University Place-Making – Sustainable Tourism Development Forum Sustainable Tourism Planning and Development Laboratory October 25, 2007

  2. The Foundation of the Tourist Experience • Tourists as co-producers of experience • Tourists as users of technologies • Tourists as narrators Perspectives

  3. The Tourist System:A seamless tourist experience Tourist Activated Networks

  4. Travel Information Search in the Digital Environment Pre-Trip En Route and On-Site Post-Trip • Planning • Image, expectation-formation • Anticipation • Decision-making • Transaction • Connection • Navigation • Short-term decision making • Documentation – artifact collection • Sharing • Creativity/innovation • On-site transaction • Value creation • Sharing • Documentation • External memory • Re-experiencing • Attachment/identity • Meaning making • Narrative

  5. The Touristic Experience and the Narrative Process Reinterpretation Attractions Travel Experience Memories Stories Meaning Activities Social Setting Information Envelope

  6. Internet-based Systems System User Interface

  7. The Funcational Triad Tool Increases capability • Rewarding positive feedback • Modeling a target behavior • Providing social support • Perform calculations • Make behavior easier to do • Leads people through process Decision Aid Digital Pet Social Actor Creates relationships Virtual Env. Medium • Explore cause and effect relationships • Vicarious experiences • Rehearse a behavior Provides experience Fogg, 2003

  8. Travel and the Online Experience System Interactivity Roles of Interface Online Experience Possible Outcomes • Control • Choice • Feedback • Direction • Norms • Sharing • Skills • Social simulation • Engagement • Trial • Learning • Playfulness • Enjoyment • Emotions • Motivation • Knowledge • Attitude change • Involvement • Exploration • Confidence • Affect • Satisfaction • Remembering • Tools • Social actor • Medium

  9. Evolving Uses, Users and Applications: Web 2.0

  10. Guiding Research at NLTeC: A Three Stage Process Model of Website Use Stage 1: Search Input Search Term Return List of Results Stage 2: Primacy Select Webpage Form First Impression Stage 3: Elaboration Search within Website Learn about destination

  11. Stage 1. Search Input Search Term Return List of Results • Key concepts • Mental Models • Language representation • “Thin” interface – search engine • Community

  12. Mental Models andLanguage Representation Primary Learnings • Mental models of problem and solution affect search • Search process is deconstructed into a series of solutions • Mental models include process and image elements

  13. Mental Models andLanguage Representation Primary Learnings • Producers and consumers have largely different languages • Recommendation systems need to reflect the needs of consumer, not only the language of producer • Learning process where the mental model is shaped by technology

  14. First Impression in the Search Process

  15. Google - a “Thin” Interface Google Search Results: Chicago Tourism 3,850,000 pages! Available Results Unique Websites

  16. The Online Search Process Primary Learnings • Tourism domain is defined by experiences - current search programs are limited • Search process has been defined by system design rather than human needs • Search is limited by cognitive effort, perceived relevance and design

  17. The Online Search Process Primary Learnings • Text provides a strong message • Limited use by destination marketers • Order effect • Limited number of search results • Iterative process

  18. Information and LanguageRepresentation through Narrative Design Primary Learnings • Narrative design – story telling parallels human knowledge – relational concepts • Social construction • Focus on meaning • Strongly supports the search process

  19. Information and LanguageRepresentation through Narrative Design Sara time-interval survey

  20. sara’s experience reported hourly May 26, 2007, 12:00 – 17:00 13:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 15:00 17:00 12:24 13:24 12:44 13:05 14:04 14:34 16:32 12:18 14:59 15:25 my second report “really pretty city… people on the street seems pretty nice…” my initial emotions my last report “I had a really lovely time with my friends … I’m about to do some shopping!” my first report “it’s hot & sticky…” “I saw a guy with a really bad haircut…” my third report “I’m at Rouge… we're having some snacks” “... we walked upon an Italian wedding…” “the street signs have been super -super helpful!” “we stopped at Chinatown because I saw the gate…” “I don’t really know what (statue) it is…”

  21. sara’s second report “The architecture of the buildings… so gorgeous.” “Green! …is lush and bountiful out here.” sights colors sounds smells “Buses, motorcycles, cars… traffic…” “ a little like exhaust…” “I’m in front of a giant statue… in front of the rocky steps…” “I’m still with Becca & Jessica.” place people activity things Excited Relaxed Cheerful Bored Happy Tired Alert Sad Annoyed “We're taking pictures (of the statue)… posing…” “The map we’ve created & printed before we came…”

  22. Information, LanguageRepresentation and the New Media Primary Learnings • Tourist generated content – text, photos and video provide a profound setting for story telling • Videos act as a narrative transportation, providing access to landscapes and socioscapes • Represent uncontrolled sources of creating image

  23. Virtual Communities Primary Learnings • A variety of different kinds of communities • Communities function to support a variety of needs that are dynamic and evolving • Represents a powerful setting within which people share experiences

  24. Stage 2: Primacy Select Webpage Form First Impression • Key concepts • Constructed image • Mere exposure • Persuasive architecture

  25. Tourism Experiences I love the smell of Mackinac Island: the coolest air and the breeziest ...the calmest feeling. You can smell the flowers. You feel the aura of the white sandy beaches. You feel like you can smell the cleanliness of the place. You can feel the seagulls coming close. And people actually talk to you, and they are very sincere with you. It’s a whole new experience for a lot of city people, which I used to be...

  26. Sensory Experiences and Virtual Image Construction Touch Sights Smells Sounds Taste

  27. Sensory Experiences and Image Construction Primary Learnings • Images of destinations are associated with cognitive, emotional and sensory information • The internet is a strong medium with which to support sensory association with destinations • Midwest destination – autumn colors, country smells, happy Sights Touch Smells Sounds Taste

  28. Persuasive Architecture Primary Learnings • Blink effect – time taken to make decisions • Persuasive architecture • Impact of design attributes vary substantially depending upon length of time spent on webpage

  29. Stage 3: Elaboration Search within Website Learn about destination • Key concepts • Navigation - Foraging theory • Metaphors and the design of human centric systems • Recommendation systems

  30. Navigation Primary Learnings • Episodes and chapters define search process • Language of representation differs substantially across web • Satisfaction with experience is a function of usability, information, fun, etc.

  31. Metaphor Primary Learnings • Enables us to organize our mental models around common understandings • Supports navigation • Stimulates creativity

  32. Recommendation Systems Primary Learnings • Recommendation systems are part of everyday life • Recommendations are a personalized form of search • Potential have significant impact on behavior • Trust and transparency drive the recommendation process

  33. Implications for Destination Marketing

  34. Implications for Destination Marketing

  35. Implications for Destination Marketing