How did the world change socially, economically, and politically as a result of the Cold War and decolonization?
b. Describe the formation of the state of Israel and the importance of geography in its development. c. Explain the arms race; include development of the hydrogen bomb (1954) and SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty, 1972). d. Compare and contrast the reforms of Khrushchev and Gorbachev. e. Analyze efforts in the pursuit of freedom; include anti-apartheid, Tiananmen Square, and the fall of the Berlin Wall.
ISRAEL • Jews need a home after WWII, UN creates a Jewish state in Arab Palestine • 1948, Jews are given land in Palestine, creates conflict with Arabs p. 1033
Arms Race • By 1949, U.S. & Soviets both developed atomic bombs, compete for deadlier weapons - 1953: Hydrogen Bomb created • 1972: Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT) - talks between U.S. & Soviets, limited the # of nuclear weapons p. 967-8
Soviet Leaders • 1953-65, Nikita Khrushchev, Premier of Soviet Union • “Destalinizes” Reforms Soviet Union: kept Communist control, eased censorship, peaceful coexistence with the West, closed prison camps, & removed missiles from Cubap. 972
Continued • 1985-1991, Mikhail Gorbachev, President • Glasnost & Perestroika Policies: supported freedom of expression, restructuring govt. = democratization (voting rights), economy improves temporarily • By, 1991, nationalism increases - many Soviet states demand independence: Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Baltic States, & 12 others become independent (Soviet Union breaks apart) p. 1002-3
Anti-apartheid • Apartheid: Law in South Africa that separated races • 1950-60s: African National Congress, opposed apartheid, leader Nelson Mandela arrested & imprisoned for life for protesting • 1980s: Desmond Tutu lead opposition • 1989: New president F.W. Klerk voted to end apartheid, recognized ANC & freed Mandela, granted equal voting rights • 1994-99: Mandela elected president p. 1049
Tiananmen Square • 1989: Chinese college students protested leader, Deng Xiaoping, who refused democratic reform • 100,000 protesters gathered, govt sent troops to disperse group: 1000s of protesters killed/wounded p. 1077
Fall of the Berlin Wall • Germany divided, as well as, the capital, Berlin, after WWII, Soviets rule the East, Brits, U.S., & France in the West (capital split the same) • 1961: Soviets want to control all of Berlin - built a wall & pushed the 3 other ruling countries out • 1989: East Berlin govt allows East Germans to visit Austria, govt stopped visitation because many escaped to “Free” West Germany • 1989: Citizens protest - leader Egon Krenz opened the wall & eventually tore it down p. 1004
Shapely Review Draw a large triangle on your paper. On the triangle, write 3 important points you wish to remember. Be prepared to share in one minute.