Leadership in Teams: Maximizing SuccessAdvanced Personal Knowledge “…we would argue that effective leadership processes represent perhaps the most critical factor in the success of organizational teams” (Zaccaro, Rittman & Marks, 2001, p. 452)
Personal Knowledge Learning Objectives • Develop individual leadership characteristics based on leadership goals • Help teams become more productive by developing leadership strategies which facilitate task completion • Understand how individuals may adopt transformational leadership within their teams
Conceptualizing Leadership • Can you give an example of someone you think is a good leader? Why? • What are characteristics of good leaders?
Leadership Defined “Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal” (Northouse, pg. 3, 2004)
Leadership Defined, continued During last 50 years, there have been over 65 different classification systems of leadership. They differ in: • Focus on individual leader versus the group and its processes • Focus on inherent styles/characteristics versus behaviors or skills that can be learned • Focus on “designated” versus “emergent” leadership
Brainstorming Activity • Think about teams you have been on in the past: were the leaders designated or did they emerge? How did well did the team work together? Do you have a preference?
What is the Leader’s goal? Team Excellence* Characteristics of Excellent Teams include: • Clear, elevating goal • Results-driven structure • Competent team structure • Unified commitment • Collaborative climate • Standards of excellence • Principled leadership • External support * (Larson & LaFasto, 1989)
Common Leadership Responsibilities* • Initiate the relationships/start the team • Create and maintain communication • Maintain relationships (internal and external to the team) • Use power to influence others and reach mutual goals (position or personal power) • Provide a vision for achievement and motivation
How is Good Leadership Exercised and Demonstrated? • Personal Characteristics: “You’re a born leader!” • Skills and Knowledge: “You’re an exceptional individual!” • Behaviors: “You’re a skillful facilitator!”
Personal Characteristics associated with Leaders* • Intelligence (complex problem solving skills and social judgment skills) • Self-confidence (self esteem and assurance) • Determination (initiative, drive, proactive, perseverance) • Ethical (can be trusted by others, integrity) • Social (friendly, outgoing, tactful) *Stogdil (1948), Kirkpatrick & Locke (1991)
Skills and Abilities associated with Leaders* • Technical: knowledge about the team’s specific tasks or activities (THINGS) • Interpersonal: knowledge of how to work with others and to help others work with each other (PEOPLE) • Conceptual: knowledge about ideas, concepts, ability to hypothesize (IDEAS) • (Optional) Test yourself: The Leadership Skills Inventory • *Katz (1955), Muford, Zacarro, Harding (2000)
Leadership Behaviors* • Focuses on the behaviors or style of the leader (not just traits or characteristics) • Two major types of behaviors: • Task • Relationship • How can these behaviors be combined by a leader to influence the team to succeed?? *Blake & Mouton (1964)
Task Behaviors • Focus is on production: how the team tasks are accomplished • Involves paying attention to: • policy • development of new products • making plans for the future
Relationship Tasks • Focus is the people on the team • Behaviors include building trust, commitment to the organization, promoting the wellbeing of team members, and establishing harmony on the team
4 Combinations of Task & Relationship Styles • High Task/High Relationship: “Team Management”-work is accomplished by committed people with a common stake in the process and outcome • Low Task/Low Relationship: “Impoverished Management”-leader in name only, uninvolved, indifferent • High Task/Low Relationship: “Authority/Compliance”-benevolent dictator who acts as though people are unconnected to the task • Low Task/ High Relationship: “Social Club”-attention to the needs of people createscomfortable, friendly team environment, with relaxed work tempo
Beyond Personality, Styles and Tasks:Transformational Leadership* • Focus is on transforming individuals by addressing values, ethics, long term goals • Considers the “whole” person; helps them reach their full potential • Motivates team members to do much more than is expected of them • Promotes the common good over individual self interest *Burns (1978)
Transformational Leaders: • Are purposeful role models in terms of ethics and values • Can formulate a vision of the desired future state of the organization or team WITH team members • Can understand and empower team members • Can act as change agents to initiate and maintain team progress, create an inclusive, creative, committed environment
Transformational Leaders on Teams • Must be concerned with both team performance and team development (tasks and relationships) • Leadership behaviors can be shared by all members of the team at various times; leadership is fluid and based on the team needs at the time • Tasks include: motivating members, identifying tasks/problems, conflict resolution, matching team tasks/goals to individual needs/competencies and external requirements
Why Transformational Leadership?* Studies have shown: • It increasesorganizational performance • It generates higher commitment to the task from team members • It reduces employee stress and increases well-being • Is it linked with customer satisfaction *Epitropaki (2004)
Taking the Skills Inventory* • Leader-centered model that stresses developing particular skills • Luckily, skills are competencies that individuals can learn or develop. You do not need to be born with them. • The skills approach provides an expansive view of leadership: includes problem-solving skills, social judgment skills, knowledge, individual attributes… • The Skills Inventory helps you understand how leadership skills are measured, and what your own skills might be. *Northouse (2004)
Leadership summary • Being a leader is all-encompassing: good leaders are also good teammates • The role of “leader” may shift from person-to-person as the task necessitates • The proper balance of task and relationship behaviors must be present for effective leadership
Optional Slides • Case Study Discussion • Taking additional leadership instruments
What kind of Leader are you? • In terms of characteristics: • How many leader characteristics do you possess? Ask for feedback confirmation from a team member. • In terms of skills: • Complete the Skills Inventory (Northouse, 2004) • In terms of style: • Complete the Style Questionnaire (Northouse, 2004) • In terms of transformational leadership: • Complete the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ)
Case Study • Break into small groups and discuss the following scenario from a: • Leadership skill perspective • Leadership style perspective • Transformational leadership perspective • Is one leadership approach more useful than the others? • How would a leader with YOUR characteristics work with this situation?
Leadership in Teams: The Leader in You Leadership on teams is a complex process • Involves attention to completion of the task and productivity of people • Is a combination and reflection of you as a whole person: intellect, emotion, spiritual, personality, skills, and behaviors • Involves communication, problem solving, technical skills, awareness of the needs of the team, external demands and expectations, and a vision • Everyone can be a leader and exemplify leadership behaviors/attitudes
References • Blake R.R., & Mouton, J.S. (1985). The Managerial Grid III. Houston, TX: Gulf. • Burns, J.M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row. • Epitropaki, O. (2004). What is transformational leadership? From http://www.shef.ac.uk/~iwp/publications/whatis/transformational.pdf • Katz, R.L. (1955, Jan-Feb). Skills of an effective administrator. Harvard Business Review. • Kirkpatrick, S.A., & Locke, E.A. (1991). Leadership: Do traits matter? The Executive, 5,48-60. • Larson, C.E., & LaFasto, M.J. (1989). Teamwork: What must go right, what can go wrong. Newberry Park, CA: Sage Publications. • Mumford, M.D., Zaccaro. S. J., Connelly, M.S. & Marks, M.A. (2000). Leadership skills: Conclusions and future directions. Leadership Quarterly, 11(1), 155-170. • Northouse, P.G. (2004). Leadership: Theory and practice. Thousand Oaks, London: Sage Publications. • Stodgill, R.M. (1974). Handbook of leadership: A survey of theory and research. New York: Free Press. • Zaccaro, Rittman, & Marks. (2001). Team leadership. Leadership Quarterly,12(4), 451-483.