LEADERSHIP Prepared for SHP 1313 at UTM Skudai, Johore, MALAYSIA by SitiRokiahSiwok, firstname.lastname@example.org
First , a basic question: • Is study of leadership important?
Leadership • What is leadership? • Who are leaders? • What do they do? • What are their characteristics? • Any difference between effective leaders and ineffective leaders? • Do they have similar/different styles of leadership? Etc
An overview • Define what leadership is. • Identify traits of effective leaders. • Describe behaviors that effective leaders demonstrate. • Explain the concepts of contingency , transactional, transformational, and charismatic leadership. • Specify the contexts in which various leadership styles are effective • Develop your own leadership skills.
What is Leadership? • Leadership is the ability to guide a group toward the achievement of goals. • Leaders can be formally recognized by the organization, or individuals can emerge as informal leaders within work groups because they have some characteristic that the group members value.
Leader and Leadership • Leadership is an influence process that includes any behavior that helps clarify a group’s purpose or guides the group to achieve its goals. • A leader is a person who is assigned or selected, or emerges from a group, to guide or provide direction towards reaching the group’s goal ( Sieler and Beall, 2011 page 431)
Leadership • Many questions are being asked related to leadership, such as: • Are leaders born? • Are leaders “bred”/developed?
Leader emergence • It is the idea that people who become leader have traits or characteristics different from people who do not become leaders.
Universalist Theories of Leadership • Universalist theories look for the major characteristics common to all effective leaders. • Great man/woman theory maintains that great leaders are born, not made. • Trait theory attempts to discover the traits shared by all effective leaders. • Traits are enduring attributes associated with an individual’s personality or makeup. (Riggio, 2009)
Universalist Theories of Leadership • Research indicates that extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience, agreeableness, and emotional stability, in combination, are associated with effective leadership (Bono and Judge, 2004 in Riggio 2009). • Possession of flexibility, charisma, and social intelligence are also important for leadership (Riggio, 1986). • The major problem with the original trait approach is that it was too general.
Characteristics of Leaders • Leaders have special characteristics . • Recent reviews show that : • People high in openness, conscientiousness, extraversion and low in neuroticism are more likely to emerge as leaders (Judge, Bono, Ilies and Gerhardt, 2002 in Aamodt 2010) • High self monitors emerge as leaders more often then low self-monitors. • More intelligent
Characteristics of Leaders • Meta-analysis by Youngjohn (1999) found that individual-difference variables were good predictors of leadership performance: • Charismatic • Dominant • Energetic • High in self monitoring
Summary of Leadership Characteristics:Leader Emergence • Traits • Intelligence • Openness to experience • Extraversion • Conscientiousness • Emotional stability • High self-monitoring • Leadership emergence seems to be stable across the life-span
Traits and leadership: Intelligence • General mental ability, which psychologists refer to as “g” and which is often called IQ in everyday language, has been related to a person’s emerging as a leader within a group. Specifically, people who have high mental abilities are more likely to be viewed as leaders in their environment • We should caution, though, that intelligence is a positive but modest predictor of leadership.
Leadership and EQ • In addition to having high IQ, effective leaders tend to have high emotional intelligence (EQ) • People with high EQ demonstrate a high level of self-awareness, motivation, empathy, and social skills. • According to Goleman ( 1995), what differentiates effective leaders from ineffective ones becomes their ability to control their own emotions and understand other people’s emotions, their internal motivation, and their social skills
Emotional intelligence • Goleman (1995) identified the five 'domains' of EQ as: • Knowing your emotions. • Managing your own emotions. • Motivating yourself. • Recognising and understanding other people's emotions. • Managing relationships
Leader Performance/Behaviour • Leader performance involves the idea that people who perform well have certain characteristics that poor performing leaders do not. • Rather then thinking that a leader “emerge”, we can look into the performance of the leaders. We see what are the characteristics of leaders who perform well vis-à-vis those not performing well.
Behavioral Theories of Leadership • Behavioral leadership theories (derived from Ohio State and University of Michigan studies) focus on the behaviors common to effective leaders. • The Ohio State Leadership Studies identified two important leader behaviors: • Initiating structure (defining, organizing, structuring the work situation). • Consideration (showing concern for feelings and needs of followers).
Behavioral Theories of Leadership • The University of Michigan Leadership Studies also identified two important leader behaviors. • In task-orientated behaviors, leader behaviors focused on the work task. • In relationship-oriented behaviors, leader behaviors focused on maintaining interpersonal relationships on the job. • Both types of behaviors have been linked to effective leadership.
Task Versus Person Orientation • Person-Oriented Leaders • act in a warm, supportive manner and show concern for the employees • believe employees are intrinsically motivated • Task-Oriented Leaders • set goals and give orders • believe employees are lazy and extrinsically motivated
Task oriented leaders • Task-oriented leaders see their employees as lazy , extrinsically motivated, undisciplined etc, so task-oriented leaders lead by giving directives, setting goals and making decision without consulting their subordinates. • Included in the task oriented leaders are : • Task-centred leaders • Theory X leaders • High initiating structure
Person oriented leaders • Act in a warm, supportive manner and show concern for the employees • believe employees are intrinsically motivated
Instruments • The orientation of a leader can be measured by several instruments such as: • Leadership Opinion Questionnaire ( LOQ) • Leader Behaviour Description Questionnaire (LBDQ)
Unsuccessful Leaders(Hogan, 1989) • Lack of training • Cognitive deficiencies • Personality problems • paranoid/passive-aggressive • high likeability floater • narcissist
Unsuccessful Leader BehaviorsShen et al. (2008) • Engaging in illegal and unethical behavior • Avoiding conflict and people problems • Demonstrating poor emotional control (e.g., yelling and screaming) • Over-controlling (e.g., micromanaging) • Demonstrating poor task performance • Poor planning, organization, and communication • Starting or passing on rumors or sharing confidential information • Procrastinating and not meeting time commitments • Failing to accommodate the personal needs of subordinates • Failing to nurture and manage talent
Interaction between leader and situation • Leader’s effectiveness not only depends on traits that s/he posses but also on the particular situation in which the leader is in. • Several theories ( or models) have emerged to explain the situational nature of leadership.
Interaction Between the Leader and the Situation • Situational Favorability • Organizational Climate • Subordinate Ability • Relationships with Subordinates
Leader and situation: Fiedler’s Contingency Model • Fiedler’s contingency model holds that any leader is effective only in certain situations. • Thus Fiedler argue that rather than change the leadership style , leadership training should concentrate on helping people understand their leadership style and manipulate the environment to make a perfect match. • Fiedler developed Least Preferred coworker scale ( LPC) • Fiedler’s ideas supported by researches • Fiedler’s training : Leader match
LPC • The least-preferred coworker (LPC) scale classifies leadership styles. • Describe the one person with whom he or she worked the least well with. • From a scale of 1 through 8, describe this person on a series of bipolar scales: Unfriendly 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Friendly Uncooperative 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Cooperative Hostile 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Supportive Guarded 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Open
Fielder’s Contingency Model: Implications • The favorableness of leadership situations should be assessed. • Candidates for leadership positions should be evaluated using the LPC scale . • If a leader is being sought for a particular leadership position, a leader with the appropriate LPC profile should be chosen. • If a leadership situation is being chosen for a particular candidate, a situation should be chosen which matches his/her LPC profile.
Applying Fiedler’s Contingency Theory • Fill out the LPC • Determine whether you are task or relationship oriented. • Think of a leadership situation in which you were not optimally effective and/or one in which you excelled • Evaluate the situation(s) • Does your experience support Fiedler’s theory?
Contingency theory: Strengths • Supported by a lot of empirical research • Looks at the impact of the situation on leaders • It is predictive • It does not require that people be effective in all situations • It provides a way to assess leader style that could be useful to an organization
Contingency Theory: Weaknesses • There is some doubt whether the LPC is a true measure of leadership style • It is cumbersome to use • Doesn't explain what to do when there is a mismatch between style and situation • Other situational variables, like training and experience, have an impact in a leader's effectiveness
Leader and situation: IMPACT • IMPACT theory, developed by Geier, Downey and Johnson (1980). • Leaders have 6 behaviourstyles : informational, magnetic, position, affiliation, coercive and tactical. • Each style is effective with only one particular situation or organizational climate.
IMPACT THEORY • Informational style in climate of ignorance • Magnetic style in a climate of despair • Position style in a climate of instability • Affiliation style in a climate of anxiety • Coercive style in a climate of crisis • Tactical style in a climate of disorganization
IMPACT THEORY: STRATEGIES • Find a climate consistent with your leadership style • Change your leadership style to better fit the climate • Change your followers perception of the climate • Change the actual climate
Leader and situation: Path-goal Theory • Leaders who can adapt their behaviour to match the needs of their subordinates will be more effective than leaders who stick to one leadership style ( Foster, 1999, in Aamodt, 2010) • According to the path-goal theory ( House, 1971, in Aamodt, 2010), a leader can adopt one of the leadership styles to manage different situations: • Instrumental/Directive • Supportive • Participative • Achievement -oriented
Path-goal Theory • Each style will work in certain situations and also depends on the subordinates’ abilities and the extent the task is structured. • The higher the level of subordinates’ abilities, the less directive the leader should be. • On the contrary, the less structured the situation , the more directive will the leader be ( Schriesheim and DeNisi, 1981 in Aamodt 2010)
Path-goal Theory • In addition, according to this theory, a leader should: • Recognize the needs of subordinates and work to satisfy those needs. • Reward subordinates who reach their goals. • Help subordinates identify the best paths to take in reaching particular goals. • Clear those paths so that employees can reach their goals. As path-goal theory is behaviour based, the theory could be used in training.
Path-Goal Theory: Leadership Behaviours • Directive leadership – leader gives instructions, expectations, time lines, and performance standards • Supportive Leadership- leader is friendly and approachable, attends to the well being of subordinates, and treats everyone as equals • Participative Leadership- leader invites subordinates to give ideas, share opinions and integrates their suggestions into the decision making process • Achievement-Oriented Leadership- leader challenges subordinates to perform at the highest level possible. Leader has high standards of excellence and seeks continuous improvement.