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Traffic Control at Emergency Incidents

Traffic Control at Emergency Incidents

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Traffic Control at Emergency Incidents

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  1. Traffic Controlat Emergency Incidents Brantley County Firefighters Atkinson Volunteer Fire Department January, 2009

  2. Terminal Objective To provide the student with the basic tools necessary to provide for responder safety at the scene of an emergency involving a roadway. January, 2009 Atkinson Volunteer Fire Department Atkinson Volunteer Fire Department 2

  3. Enabling Objectives • Discuss the need for traffic control • Discuss the various laws, regulations, and standards covering traffic control at emergency scenes • Discuss terminology related to traffic control • Discuss safety measures to be considered when establishing traffic control • Discuss establishing and expanding the scene January, 2009 Atkinson Volunteer Fire Department Atkinson Volunteer Fire Department 3

  4. The Need Why we need uniform response for traffic control

  5. The Problem January, 2009 The Need The Need 5

  6. The Problem • July 5, 2007 1:05pm • Mesquite, TX • All four firefighters were transported to the hospital and all were released within 6 hours of the incident. The firefighter that stumbled out of the cab on the driver's side was ok after being checked out at the hospital. Neither of the firefighters in the back had time to sit down and get belted into their seats before the collision. The Driver/Engineer and the Captain were both belted in their seats at the time of the accident. The crew had received another call for service and were preparing to respond when the accident occurred. The A post where the Captain sits was completely detached at the roof line. The Captain jumped out of the front window after the accident to check on the occupants of the semi. No one in the semi was hurt. The pumper has been totaled. As you can see from the video it got bent pretty bad. Courtesy of FirefighterCloseCalls.com January, 2009 The Need The Need 6

  7. The Problem • November 25, 2008 8:20am • High Point, NC • Firefighter struck while exiting vehicle at highway accident scene • Driver who struck firefighter charged with Failure to Move Over Courtesy of FirefighterCloseCalls.com January, 2009 The Need The Need 7

  8. The Problem • November 30, 2008, 1:40pm • DeBusk, TN • Firefighter struck by vehicle while directing traffic at an accident scene • Driver who struck firefighter said “he didn’t see him (the firefighter)” • Injured firefighter had just pushed another firefighter to safety before being struck • Firefighter was wearing proper PPE, including vest Courtesy of FirefighterCloseCalls.com January, 2009 The Need The Need 8

  9. The Problem • December 17, 2008, 12:00pm • Haugen, Montana • Firefighter killed while directing traffic • A Firefighter was killed when a semi crashed into his vehicle while he was managing/warning traffic for a separate wreck on I-90. The firefighter was in his POV in the outside westbound lane of I-90 with his emergency lights on, directing/warning traffic around the corner from the first crash. An approaching FedEx semi with two trailers tried to slow and move but couldn't because of other traffic in the vicinity...while trying to brake, the truck slid and jackknifed on the slippery snow-covered road, and both trailers collided with his pickup, partially ejecting him from the vehicle. January, 2009 The Need The Need 9

  10. The Problem • Approximately 200 roadside workers killed annually • Approximately 800 motorists killed annually • Thousands more injured • Not limited to firefighters • 1996 - 2006 • 52 firefighters killed in “struck-by” incidents Courtesy National Traffic Incident Management Coalition January, 2009 The Need The Need 10

  11. Causes • Lack of training • Lack of situational awareness • Failure to establish a proper Temporary Traffic Control zone • Improper positioning of apparatus • Inappropriate use of scene lighting January, 2009 The Need The Need 11

  12. Causes • Failure to use PPE and high-visibility apparel and safety equipment • Careless, inattentive, or impaired drivers • Reduced vision driving conditions • Altered traffic patterns January, 2009 The Need The Need 12

  13. Civilian Drivers • Accustomed to clear unobstructed roadways • May not recognize and avoid • Closed lanes • Workers on or near roadway • Emergency vehicles on or near roadway • May be driving while impaired • May be deliberately targeting responders January, 2009 The Need The Need 13

  14. The Law Laws, Regulations, and Standards covering traffic control at emergency scenes

  15. Sources • Federal Law • Title 23, CFR – Highways • Federal Highway Administration • MUTCD • Title 49, CFR – Transportation • Hazardous Materials • NFPA • NFPA 1500 • NFPA 1901 January, 2009 The Law The Law 15

  16. Sources • ANSI • 107 Standard • 207 Standard January, 2009 The Law The Law 16

  17. MUTCD • Manual for Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, 2003 ed. • Part 6 – Temporary Traffic Control • Chapter 6I - Control of Traffic Through Traffic Incident Management Areas • 6I.02 - Major Traffic Incidents • 6I.03 - Intermediate Traffic Incidents • 6I.04 - Minor Traffic Incidents • 6I.05 - Use of Emergency Vehicle Lighting January, 2009 The Law The Law 17

  18. Federal Law • Title 23 CFR • Part 634 - Worker Visibility • 634.2 • Workermeans people on foot whose duties place them within the right-of-way of a Federal aid highway, such as highway construction and maintenance forces, survey crews, utility crews, responders to incidents within the highway right-of-way, and law enforcement personnel when directing traffic, investigating crashes, and handling lane closures, obstructed roadways, and disasters within the right-of-way of a Federal-aid highway. January, 2009 The Law The Law 18

  19. Federal Law • Title 23 CFR • Part 634 - Worker Visibility • 634.3 • All workers within the right-of-way of a Federal-aid highway who are exposed either to traffic (vehicles using the highway for purposes of travel) or to construction equipment within the work area shall wear high-visibility safety apparel. • Firefighters are exempt when directly involved in activities such as fire suppression or hazardous materials response, but high-visibility apparel must be put on when these activities are concluded. (Amended Nov 21, 2008) January, 2009 The Law The Law 19

  20. NFPA • 1500 – Fire Department Occupational Safety and Health Program, 2007 ed. • Chapter 8.7 - Traffic Incidents • 8.7.1 – Appropriate measures taken to protect members • 8.7.2 – SOPs for operations involving traffic incidents • 8.7.4 – Apparatus positioned to protect members • 8.7.5 – Warning devices used for oncoming traffic • 8.7.6 – Warning device placement sensitive to conditions January, 2009 The Law The Law 20

  21. NFPA • 1500 – Fire Department Occupational Safety and Health Program, 2007 ed. • Chapter 8.7 - Traffic Incidents • 8.7.7 – First unit addresses traffic issues • 8.7.8 – Members and victims in secure area • 8.7.9 – Unneeded vehicles parked off roadway • 8.7.10 – Members wear garments with visible materials • 8.7.11 – Members trained in traffic control January, 2009 The Law The Law 21

  22. NFPA • 1901 – Standard for Automotive Fire Apparatus, 2009 ed. • Chapter 5 - Pumper Fire Apparatus • 5.8.3 (18) - One traffic vest for each seating position, each vest to comply with ANSI/ISEA 207, Standard for High Visibility Public Safety Vests, and have a five point breakaway feature that includes two at the shoulders, two at the sides and one at the front. January, 2009 The Law The Law 22

  23. NFPA • 1901 – Standard for Automotive Fire Apparatus, 2009 ed. • Chapter 5 - Pumper Fire Apparatus • 5.8.3 (19) - Five fluorescent orange traffic cones not less than 28 in. in height, each equipped with a 6 in. retro-reflective white band no more than 4 in. from the top of the cone, and an additional 4 in. retro-reflective white band 2 in. below the 6 in. band. January, 2009 The Law The Law 23

  24. NFPA • 1901 – Standard for Automotive Fire Apparatus, 2009 ed. • Chapter 5 - Pumper Fire Apparatus • 5.8.3 (20) - Five illuminated warning devices such as highway flares, unless the five fluorescent orange traffic cones have illuminating capabilities January, 2009 The Law The Law 24

  25. NFPA • 1901 – Standard for Automotive Fire Apparatus, 2009 ed. • Chapter 15 – Body, Compartments, and Equipment Mounting • 15.9.3 - Reflective Striping • 15.9.3.2 - At least of 50% of the rear vertical surfaces of the apparatus, visible from the rear of the apparatus, excluding any pump panel areas not covered by a door, shall be equipped with retro-reflective striping in a chevron pattern sloping downward and away from the centerline of the vehicle at an angle of 45 degrees. January, 2009 The Law The Law 25

  26. NFPA • 1901 – Standard for Automotive Fire Apparatus, 2009 ed. • Chapter 15 – Body, Compartments, and Equipment Mounting • 15.9.3 - Reflective Striping • 15.9.3.2.1 – Each stripe in the chevron shall be a single color alternating between red and either yellow, fluorescent yellow, or fluorescent yellow-green • 15.9.3.2.2 – Each stripe shall be 6 inches (150MM) in width January, 2009 The Law The Law 26

  27. Terminology Describing the parts of a scene

  28. TTC • Temporary Traffic Control • Move road users past or around incident in a safe and expeditious manner • Reduce likelihood of secondary traffic collisions • Preclude unnecessary use of surrounding local road system Terminology and Safety

  29. TIMA • Traffic Incident Management Area • That part of the roadway where TTC measures are imposed by authorized officials in response to a traffic incident • Begins at the first warning device • Ends at the last TTC point Terminology and Safety

  30. Incident Types • Minor Incidents • Up to 30 minutes in length • Intermediate Incidents • 30 minutes to 2 hours • Major Incidents • Longer than 2 hours January, 2009 Terminology and Safety 30

  31. Minor Incidents • Typically small incidents • Non injury accidents with minimal damage to vehicles • Disabled vehicles • Traffic stops • Most common responders on scene • Police • Tow Operators January, 2009 Terminology and Safety 31

  32. Intermediate Incidents • Longer duration than Minor Incidents • May involve multiple vehicles with minor injuries • Minimal extrication times • May involve road blockage January, 2009 Terminology and Safety 32

  33. Major Incidents • Very long duration incidents • Accidents with fatalities • Accidents involving multiple vehicles • Accidents with long extrication times • Accidents involving hazardous materials January, 2009 Terminology and Safety 33

  34. Incident Scene • Consists of 4 parts • Advance Warning Area • Transitional Area • Activity Area • Buffer Space • Incident Space • Termination Area Terminology and Safety

  35. Incident Scene • Termination Area • Activity Area • Incident Space • Buffer Space • Transitional Area • Advance Warning Area Terminology and Safety

  36. Other Terms • Taper – Narrowing of the driving pathway • Size dependent on posted speed limit • Blocking – The positioning of apparatus to create a safe work zone • Shadow – The area protected by apparatus parked in a blocking position Terminology and Safety

  37. Other Terms • Shadow • Blocking • Taper Terminology and Safety

  38. Safety Considerations for safety measures at a scene

  39. Warning Signs • Fluorescent Pink • Black Writing • “Emergency Scene Ahead” • 36” x 36” or 48” x 48” in size • 36” used on roads with low to moderate speeds • 48” used on roads with higher speeds and freeways • Use of larger sign covers all possible incidents • Use mandated by MUTCD and NFPA 1500 Terminology and Safety

  40. Warning Signs

  41. Cones • Most common barrier device • Two sizes based on speed of road • 18” - used in daytime and on low speed roadways (≤ 40mph) • 28” - used at night and on high speed roadways (≥ 45mph) • Cones used at night also need reflective trim • Should have capability of being illuminated for night time operations Terminology and Safety

  42. Flaggers • Personnel trained in traffic control • Training mandated by MUTCD and NFPA 1500 • If personnel are used to direct traffic • If used, must be located so approaching drivers can react safely and appropriately • Must be dressed in proper protective equipment Terminology and Safety

  43. Vests • Use mandated by Federal Law and NFPA standards • Must meet ANSI Class II standards • Either 107-2004 or 207-2006 standards • Bunker gear meets reflectivity standards of ANSI 107, but not color standards Terminology and Safety

  44. Vests – Class I

  45. Vests – Class II

  46. Vests – Class III

  47. Vests vs. Turnouts Terminology and Safety

  48. Mitigation • Preplanning • Create and enforce SOP’s/SOG’s • Response to scene • Incident Command structure • Safety equipment • Vests • Training • To the preplan • To the SOP/SOG Terminology and Safety

  49. Preplanning Response • Include Everyone • EMS, SO, HP,LEO, Fire, DOT • Ensure process and format for plan is agreed upon before beginning • Make sure final plan is easy to understand • Share the plan • Train to the plan Terminology and Safety

  50. Preplanning Response • Know what everyone else is supposed to do • Exercise the plan • Review the plan • Modify as needed, then repeat previous steps Terminology and Safety