The Consolidation of Latin America AP World History II
Roots of Political Change • Political change begins with the Creoles • Held back by class differentiation • Four external events that precipitate Latin American Independence • American Revolution • French Revolution • Haitian Revolution • Iberian Political Crisis
Haitian Revolution • Haiti was a French sugar colony • Slaves begin a revolution in 1791 under the leadership of Toussaint L’Overture. • 1804: The Independent Republic of Haiti is established. • Haiti becomes a symbol of freedom and hope for Latin American Independence movements
Iberian Political Crisis • France invaded Portugal and Spain as a part of the Napoleonic Wars. • By 1810, confusion in Spain and Portugal provokes a crisis in the colonies. • The crisis of legitimacy reverberates throughout the colonies.
Mexico • Priest Father Miguel de Hidalgo calls for help from mestizos and American Indians for independence. • Won early victories, but lost support of creoles • Captured and executed • Later, in 1820, Creoles were able to move towards independence.
Mexico • Augustin de Iturbide, a creole officer at the head of the army, was proclaimed Emperor of Mexico in 1821. • This is a conservative solution…no attempt to incorporate Hidalgo’s ideals • Central America was attached to the Mexican empire, but it collapsed in 1824. • Mexico becomes a republic, and central American states declare independence by 1838
South America • Simon Bolivar emerges as a leader in Northern South America, • 1817-1822 he won a series of victories in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador, otherwise known as Gran Colombia • Bolivar dies in 1830 as a symbol of independence and republican government.
South America • In Southern South America, Jose de San Martin organizes a movement in the Rio de la Plata
South America • 1816: United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata • San Martin becomes a crusader of Independence movements • Argentina • Chile • Peru • Newly independent nations of South America were born of the enlightenment and the ideas of 19th century liberalism, thus many were republics with representative governments
Brazil • Napoleonic invasions were different for Portugal than in Spain. • 1807: French troops enter Portugal and the royal family flees to Brazil. • Rio de Janeiro was the capital of Portugal, and Brazil was raised to the same status as Portugal. • With Spanish colonies, Napoleonic invasions caused a crisis. In the Portuguese colony of Brazil, the same invasions brought the colonial government into the colony!
Brazil • Portugal was ruled from Brazil until 1820. • Rio de Janeiro becomes a bustling city of European progress, especially with British commerce. • Dom Joao was recalled in 1820, and he leaves his son Pedro in Brazil. • Pedro declares Brazilian independence in 1822 and becomes Dom Pedro I, constitutional emperor of Brazil.
Latin American independence issues • Representative government • Careers open to talent • Freedom of commerce and trade • Right to private property • Belief in individual as basis of society • New nations should be sovereign • New nations should be economically viable • New nations should be united under a set of laws • Church…Roman Catholicism vs. Freedom of Religion
LA Independence Issues • Early constitutions impose property or literacy restrictions on voting • Creoles are caught in the middle! • Sometimes they fight for independence, sometimes for royal forces • Mestizo class distinction still exists
Political Fragmentation • Mexico: short-lived monarchy, then republic by 1823, but unstable until 1860s • Guatemala forms United Provinces of Central America, but collapses by 1839 • Dominican Republic occupies Haiti, but gains independence in 1844
Political Fragmentation • South America • Gran Colombia • Ecuador • Colombia • Panama • Venezuela • Collapses by 1830, the year of Bolivar’s death • Rio de la Plata • Modern Argentina • Chile remains independent • Peru and Bolivia flirt with union from 1829-1839 under Andres Santa Cruz
Caudillos • Independent leaders who dominated local areas by force, and who sometimes lead the national government itself • Becomes the arbiter of power in local regional differences • Lead the local military, which puts Spain on the defense
Government • Caudillos agree to create some form of republican government, but divisions therein are • Centralists: Strong centralized national government • Federalists: power to flow from regional governments
Liberals Rights of an individual Attacked corporate structure of society Secular society Decentralized, federalist government Conservatives Strong centralized state Maintain aspects of colonial society Structures groups (guilds, institutions) provide the most stability for society Want to keep strong Iberian Catholicism alive Government The Political Spectrum!
1820-1870 • Monroe Doctrine (1823): any attempt by a European power to colonize in America would be considered an unfriendly act by the US. • Britain engages in extensive trade with Latin America • LA becomes heavily invested and dependent in foreign trade
1820-1870 • 1820-1850 was a stagnant time for Latin America • Economic motives drive LA towards success • Coffee in Brazil • Beef and Hides in Argentine • Minerals and Grains in Chile • Guano in Peru • 1840’s-communications and industry increases in LA • 1860’s-railroads
1820-1870 • Positivism: LA societies stressed observation and a scientific approach to solving problems • Industrialism and Imperialism creates new demands for Latin American products. • LA leaders want to expand their capitalist interests
MEXICO • Mexican republic was established in 1824 • Federalist constitution that resembles the US, France • General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna seizes power in 1835 • Caudillo • Autocratic
Mexico-Texas • Texans sought more autonomy as federalists within the Mexican Nation. • Santa Anna attempts to suppress the Texans • Santa Anna is captured • The US, under ideals of Manifest Destiny, votes to annex Texas in 1845.
Mexico-Texas • War breaks out between Mexico and the US • Mexico is forced to sign the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo in 1848 • US acquires ½ of Mexico’s national territory. • Mexican-American war leaves bitter legacy of distrust.
Mexico • Santa Anna could not return to power after the Mexican-American defeat • Liberals begin La Reforma in 1854 • New constitution in 1857 • Benito Juarez (el presidente) pushes liberal reforms • Civil War • Conservatives turn to Napoleon III in France for assistance • Maximilian von Habsburg takes the throne of Mexico • Works to keep La Reforma in place, but is disliked by Juarez and liberals.
Mexico • When French troops withdraw in 1867, Emperor Maximilian is captured and executed. • Juarez sends the message… “hands off Mexico” to Europe!
Argentina • United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata split apart soon after its independence was achieved in 1816. • Liberals stress the concept of Centralism
Argentina • Manuel de Rosas takes power by 1831 as a Federalist. • Weak central government and local autonomy • Benefits the Buenos Aires ranchers • Despotic • Driven from power in 1852
Argentina • New constitution in 1853 incorporates Federalist ideals • Centralists were appeased by guaranteeing national unity through the power of the presidency over provincial governors. • 1862: Argentine Republic is declared • 1862-1890: Able and intelligent Argentine Presidents • 1868-1874: Domingo Sarmiento
Argentina • Domingo Sarmiento (1811-1888) • Supporter of US and Britain • Liberal • Believer in the value of education • Helped by political stability of Buenos Aires • Part of a greater sense of liberalism that will sweep through Argentina
Brazil • Avoided much of the political turmoil in the early 19th century • Dom Pedro I abdicates in 1831 in favor of his younger son (to be Dom Pedro II) • By 1840 Dom Pedro II is able to rule in his own name
Brazil • Economic changes • Coffee • Fazendas (coffee estates) spread towards the interior • 1880: coffee makes up more than 60% of Brazil’s exports • Causes an intensification of slavery • Slavery is not abolished until 1888 • After 1850, under rule of enlightened monarch Dom Pedro II, Brazil sees considerable growth and prosperity.
Brazil • Brazil was the last nation in the western hemisphere to abolish slavery • War against Paraguay in 1865-1870 was a stain on the monarchy • 1889: bloodless coup deposes the emperor • Military rule, influenced by positivist intellectuals and Republican politicians (which began in 1871)
1880-1920 • Expansion of Latin American Economy was led by exports • Bananas and coffee from Central America • Tobacco and sugar from Cuba • Rubber and Coffee from Brazil • Copper and silver from Mexico • Wool, wheat, and beef from Argentina • Copper from Chile • Profitable, but dependent on the world market
1880-1920 • Export driven economy often caused revolts and wars throughout Latin America • Exports rose amazingly high from 1870-1890 • “As wealthy as an Argentine”
Mexico 1880-1920 • Benito Juarez’s liberalism set the tone for economic growth • Porfirio Diaz was elected president in 1876.
Mexico: 1880-1920 • Porfirio Diaz • Suppressed regional rebellions • Imposed a strong centralized government • Industrialization • Financial policies promote investment • Growth occurred at the expense of the rural peasantry • Strikes and labor unrest increased • No real immigrant class • By 1910, a middle class movement mushrooms into a 10-year civil war
Argentina: 1880:1920 • Buenos Aires becomes the “Paris of South America” • Liberalism began by Sarmiento continued • Technological change and immigration fueled continued success. • By 1914, about 1/3 of Argentina were immigrants • Fusion of cultures • Tango: fuses African and Spanish music
Brazil: 1880-1920 • Economic changes and advancements also have their social cost… • Socialist party formed in 1890 • 1918: Strikes lead to violent repression • 1912: Moderates push for electoral reform • 1916: Radical party calls for more liberal policies.
The US and LA • 1898: US War with Spain • Centered on Cuba and Puerto Rico • Jose Marti fights in exile for Cuban independence • Spanish-American war serves to introduce American domination of Latin America • US occupies CUBA until 1902 and Puerto Rico • US get rights to Panama Canal • Colombia was reluctant • The US backed a Panamanian independence movement • Panama Canal opens in 1908 under the guise of Theodore Roosevelt.