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  1. Pg. POST-IT NOTE: Title Page: Unit I : Revolutions MUST INCLUDE: • Title • 5 pictures about info from the unit • 5 colors • Due at the end of the unit

  2. The French Revolution1789-1799

  3. The French Revolution The overthrow of King Louis XVI (1774-1791) and the establishment of new governments in France

  4. THE ESTATES The Social Classes in French Society under the Old Regime

  5. THE FIRST ESTATE The clergy in France- the church leaders

  6. THE SECOND ESTATE The nobles in France (the very wealthy people)

  7. THE THIRD ESTATE • The “rest” of the people in France • Bourgeoisie: wealthy merchants, artisans • 80% of Third Estate was poor peasants

  8. Why are the First and Second Estates similar in shape? • They were both wealthy • They each held one vote (out of three) in government • They owned the most land (per capita) • They paid few or no taxes

  9. What was the population by estate in France? • First Estate had less than 1% of the population in France • Second Estate had 2% of the population • Third Estate had 98% of the population • Draw a pie graph on your note sheet to indicate these statistics

  10. Population of France by estate.

  11. What was the percentage of income paid by estates? • First Estate paid 2% of their income on taxes • Second Estate paid 0% • Third Estate paid 50% • Draw a bar graph on your note sheet to show these statistics

  12. Percentage of Taxes paid by each estate

  13. THOUGHT QUESTION: What estate was Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, and the rest of the royal family in? Answer: No estate. Louis was above the estates and could supersede the estates in making laws

  14. What were the underlying causes of the French Revolution?

  15. Social Causes • Spread of Enlightenment ideas: “equality, liberty, and fraternity” • Starvation due to crop failures (1780s)

  16. POLITICAL CAUSES • Influence of the American Revolution (1776) • Weak/indecisive leadership: Louis XVI • Each estate only got one vote in the Estates-General: the Third Estate always got voted down

  17. ECONOMIC CAUSES • Heavy taxes on the Third Estate • Price of bread doubled by 1789 due to crop failures • French government went into debt from extravagant spending, especially by Louis’ wife Marie Antoinette

  18. THOUGHT QUESTION: If the Third Estate were to revolt against King Louis XVI, would it be justified? Why or why not?

  19. HOMEWORK p. 20 (LS) in notebook • Create a political cartoon that demonstrates at least one cause of the French Revolution • You must include: at least 3 colors • You must include an explanation (2-3 sentences) of your cartoon

  20. STAGES OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTIONPage 23 (RS) The French Revolution had 5 stages to it. Each stage of the Revolution is marked by a change in the type of government ruling France.

  21. STAGE ONE (1789)Who ruled France during this stage? Louis XVI

  22. There were 4 main events that occurred during stage one. They are: • The Meeting of the Estates-General • The National Assembly • The Tennis Court Oath • The Storming of the Bastille (These will be your 4 titles on this page and will take up the whole page)

  23. THE MEETING OF THE ESTATES-GENERAL • In August 1788, King Louis XVI called the Estates-General for the first time since 1614 to solve the financial crisis • Louis left procedure up to estates; estates decided to vote by head instead of by estate

  24. Meeting of the Estates-General at the Palace of Versailles

  25. The National Assembly • 3rd Estate won the vote at the Estates-General • June 17, 1789- 3rd Estate declared itself a “national assembly”

  26. THE TENNIS COURT OATH A proclamation by the Third Estate that they would not leave the Tennis Court until they had drawn up a new constitution for France

  27. Tennis Court Oath

  28. THE STORMING OF THE BASTILLE (July 14, 1789) • The Third Estate stormed the Bastille (a prison) in search of gunpowder • A symbolic act that represents the beginning of the French Revolution • Celebrated today as “Bastille Day”

  29. Storming of the Bastille Storming of the Bastille

  30. STAGE TWO (1789-1792)

  31. Who ruled France during this stage? A limited monarchy- Louis XVI as monarch and the Legislative Assembly as the parliament (limited the monarch)

  32. What were the reforms of the National Assembly?

  33. Reforms of the National Assembly • Wrote the “Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen” (Aug. 27, 1789)- did not apply to women! • Took over church lands to pay off France’s debt • Created a limited constitutional monarchy • Drew up a new constitution (Sept. 1791) • Handed power over to the Legislative Assembly

  34. THOUGHT QUESTIONS: • How was the Declaration of the Rights of Man similar to the Declaration of Independence? • How was it different?

  35. What were the hostile factions that emerged? MEMBERS OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY: Radicals (left-wing)- wanted a republic Moderates (centrists)- wanted some changes, but not as many as the radicals Conservatives (right-wing)- wanted a limited-monarchy)

  36. Hostile Factions (cont.) These were not members of the Legislative Assembly, but they were extreme factions: Sans-culottes (those without knee breeches)- extreme left- wanted even more changes than the radicals- voice in gov’t for wage-earners and small shopkeepers Emigres- wanted to restore the absolute monarchy

  37. French Political Spectrum Sans-Culottes Radicals Moderates Conservatives Emigres _____________________________________

  38. STAGE 3 1792-1795

  39. Stage 3 of the Revolution was the bloodiest and the most violent

  40. A republic called the “National Convention” under Maximillien Robespierre Who ruled France during this stage?

  41. How did this new government come into being?

  42. War with Prussia and Austria • Prussia and Austria wanted to help the emigres restore the absolute monarchy • The Legislative Assembly declared war on Prussia and Austria (April 1792)

  43. July.-Sept. 1792 • July 25- Prussia pledged to destroy Paris if Parisians harmed royal family • Aug.- Parisians invaded Tuleries and imprisoned the royal family • Sept.- Parisian mobs massacre more than 1,000 prisoners (September Massacres)

  44. ROBESPIERRE • Member of the Jacobin Club • A sans-culottes (radical) • Leader of the National Convention • Promised France a “Republic of Virtue” • Ordered enemies of the revolution to be executed

  45. THE JACOBINS • Radical club • Members came into power during stage 3 of the revolution • Robespierre was a key figure

  46. “The Purifying Pot” of the Jacobins

  47. THE COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC SAFETY • Committee set up by Robespierre to kill any “enemies of the revolution” • At first would put people on trial, later would send people directly to the guillotine • Supposed to keep the republic “safe”