The Industrial Revolution
Why Did Industrialization Begin in England First?
Industrial England: "Workshop of the World" That Nation of Shopkeepers! -- Napoleon Bonaparte
New Ways of Working Industrial Revolution—greatly increases output of machine-made goods. Revolution begins in England in the middle 1700s. Industrial Revolution Begins in Britain
The Agricultural Revolution Paves the Way Enclosures—large farm fields enclosed by fences or hedges Wealthy landowners buy, enclose land once owned by village farmers. Enclosures allowed experimentation with new agricultural methods Industrial Revolution Begins in Britain
Industrial Revolution Begins in Britain • Rotating Crops • Crop rotation—switching crops each year to avoid depleting soil • Livestock breeders allow only the best to breed, improve food supply. Satellite image of rotated crops in Kansas in June 2001
Why the Industrial Revolution Began in England Industrialization—move to machine production of goods Britain has natural resources—coal, iron, rivers, harbors Expanding economy in Britain encourages investment Britain has all needed factors of production—land, labor, capital Industrial Revolution Begins in Britain
Early Canals Britain’s Earliest Transportation Infrastructure
Mine & Forge [1840-1880] • More powerful than water is coal. • More powerful than wood is iron. • Innovations make steel feasible.*“Puddling”  – “pig iron.”* “Hot blast”  – cheaper, purer steel.*Bessemer process  – strong, flexible steel.
Child Labor in the Mines Child “hurriers”
England’s Economic Advantages A central bank Well-developed credit market Government encouraged technological change and free markets Supported capitalism Labor surplus Builds railroads, canals, and better roads Government Supports Business
New Inventions of the Industrial Revolution
Textile Industry Spinning Jenny—1770 1 worker could run 8 spindles instead of 1 Water Frame—1779 Machine for spinning using water power Spinning Mule—1779 Combined spinning jenny & water frame Rise of factory system Power Loom—1785 Not widely adopted until 1850 Led to riots by hand weavers Other Inventions Steam Engine—1763 James Watt made steam engines practical for running machinery Cotton Gin—1793 Eli Whitney’s invention increased the available supply of cotton Steamboat—1807 Robert Fulton Locomotive—1814 George Stephenson Technological Advancements
Clockwise from top left: the spinning jenny, the water frame, the spinning mule, and the power loom
Clockwise from top left: the factory system, Watt’s steam engine, and Stephenson’s locomotive
Richard Arkwright:“Pioneer of the Factory System” The “Water Frame”
Factory Production • Concentrates production in oneplace [materials, labor]. • Located near sources of power [rather than labor or markets]. • Requires a lot of capital investment[factory, machines, etc.] morethan skilled labor. • Only 10% of English industry in 1850.
The Factory System • Rigid schedule. • 12-14 hour day. • Dangerous conditions. • Mind-numbing monotony.
“Carding” is a mechanical process that breaks up locks and unorganized clumps of fiber and then aligns the individual fibers so that they are more or less parallel with each other. This enabled them to be more easily spun into thread. The old method was done by hand using these tools. • carding machine-replaces the hand process of combing out the fibers before they can be spun into yarn or thread.
Inventions Spur Industrialization • Factories—buildings that contain machinery for manufacturing
Improvements in Transportation • Watt’s Steam Engine • Need for cheap, convenient power spurs development of steam engine • James Watt improves steam engine, financed by Matthew Boulton • Boulton—an entrepreneur—organizes, manages, takes business risks. Matthew Boulton James Watt
Trevithick's 1804 locomotive. This full-scale replica of steam-powered railway locomotive is in the National Waterfront Museum, Swansea
Liverpool-Manchester Railroad Entrepreneurs build railroad from Liverpool to Manchester The Railway Age Begins
Urbanization • Effects related to urbanization • Urban overcrowding • Poor housing & sanitation • Rising crime rates • Suburbanization • Government functions shift • Sewer systems • Housing regulations • Police forces
Living Conditions Sickness widespread; epidemics, like cholera, sweep urban slums Life span in one large city is only 17 years Wealthy merchants, factory owners live in luxurious suburban homes Rapidly growing cities lack sanitary codes and building codes Cities also without adequate housing, education, and police protection Industrialization Changes Life
Working Conditions Average working day is 14 hours for 6 days a week, year round Dirty, poorly lit factories injure workers Many coal miners killed by coal dust Women & children are majority of laborers by 1816: Paid less, Many lived in factory dorms Work became unpleasant Workers separated from family Punctuality & efficiency stressed Poor working hours & wages, unemployment, & frequent accidents Labor riots were common (Luddites) Industrialization Changes Life
The Middle Class Middle class—skilled workers, merchants, rich farmers, professionals Emerging middle class looked down on by landowners and aristocrats Middle class has comfortable standard of living Class Tensions Grow
The Working Class Laborers’ lives not improved; some laborers replaced by machines Luddites and other groups destroy machinery that puts them out of work Unemployment is a serious problem; unemployed workers riot Class Tensions Grow