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Vaccination of Poultry against HPAI Policies, Issues and Good Practice PowerPoint Presentation
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Vaccination of Poultry against HPAI Policies, Issues and Good Practice

Vaccination of Poultry against HPAI Policies, Issues and Good Practice

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Vaccination of Poultry against HPAI Policies, Issues and Good Practice

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  1. Vaccination of Poultry against HPAI Policies, Issues and Good Practice A distance learning seminar organized by the World Bank, FAO, OIE and the Tokyo Development Learning Center Seminar Four October 17, 2007 (Washington, DC)

  2. Vaccination Plans Logistics, Monitoring and Other Accompanying Measures J. Domenech, A. Tripodi, G. Dauphin J. Lubroth, L. Sims FAO

  3. Vaccination is one tool among the prevention and control measures for AI and should not be used as a stand-alone measure • Vaccination will: • reduce the susceptibility of animals to infection • reduce clinical signs and mortality • reduce shedding of virus and thus reduce virus circulation but: • logistically demanding • costly • one country = one strategy • monitoring needed • will change the demands on general surveillance

  4. Selection of vaccine and strains

  5. Vaccination Schedules Layers (from 7 days of age onwards): d7 2 weeks before the onset of laying period after 4 weeks Example of vaccination protocol with inactivated vaccine Use of hatchery based prime vaccination with rFP-H5 in validation process in the field

  6. Vaccination Schedules Example of vaccination protocol with inactivated or live vectored vaccines Broilers (from 7 days of age onwards): rFP-H5 vaccine: at day old in hatchery for inactivated vaccines: from 7 days of age • Vaccination is not recommended later than two weeks • before marketing: • time for immune response too short • bruises at injection side

  7. Distribution of vaccines How and by whom is the vaccine distributed? • Important to decide with involved stakeholders • Local distribution mechanisms need to be considered: • Through veterinary services • Through commercial distributors and their distribution chain (establish monitoring/reporting to the veterinary services) • Private veterinarians e.g. francophone countries “mandat sanitaire” • .... Control by the veterinary services is highly recommended

  8. Operational Aspects • Distribution of vaccines and monitoring • Poultry census for calculation of needed doses • Material: • Automatic syringes • Needles • Disinfectants • PPE • Vaccination forms

  9. Vaccinators for DOC: • 2500 to 3500 chicks/h compared to around 1200/h manually

  10. Cold chain • Cold rooms at central level • ensure sufficient space • regular temperature monitoring • ensure continuous power supply Refrigerators at local level (check available place for AI vaccines) Vaccine carriers Photos: A. Tripodi

  11. Biosecurity issues • Need for training and sufficient material to address biosecurity issues especially during vaccination campaigns: • Vaccinating teams movements (boot covers? disinfectants? gloves?) • Vaccination material • Changing needles • Cleaning and maintenance of syringes

  12. Human resources • Contract technicians of industrial/commercial farms (1000-1200 birds/h) • Technicians of pharmaceutical/feed companies • Contracted private veterinarians (e.g. “mandat sanitaire”) • Animal Health Workers • for vaccination campaigns: • training of vaccinating and support teams • incentives for vaccinating teams have to be budgeted

  13. Information and Awareness • provision of information through multi-track communication campaigns to ensure informed decision-making processes and producers’ participation

  14. Information and Awareness • Information and dialogue with commercial farmers • Need for information and compliance of the population • information on vaccine and vaccination schedule • information on logistics • time of vaccination(s) in the village • keep the poultry inside/fenced/in baskets • information about costs/free of charge • Cooperation of farmers and village heads is crucial for an effective implementation!!!

  15. Post-Vaccination Surveillance • Objectives: • Monitor AI field virus circulation • in vaccinated populations • Check upon matching of vaccine • strains and field strains to adapt • strategy if necessary • How? • Clinical surveillance • Sentinel birds • Serological surveys • (DIVA, e.g. N Elisa) • Market surveys

  16. Post-Vaccination Monitoring • Objectives: • Assessment of vaccination • coverage • How? Surveys: • Data on vaccinated poultry • Post vaccination serology

  17. Financial aspects Operational costs and material • vaccines (0.03 to 0.05 USD/dose) • syringes (good quality around 30 USD/piece) • cold chain • disinfectants/PPE • operational costs (human resources, transport, monitoring, stationary, fuel for generators..) • post-vaccination monitoring: laboratory analysis, sampling • post vaccination surveillance: laboratory analysis, sampling

  18. Cost examples: - Cote d’Ivoire: 0,067 (sectors 1-2) to 0,077 (sectors 3-4) / bird / vaccination round - Vietnam: 0,067 (sectors 1-2) to 0,062 (sectors 3-4) / bird / vaccination round

  19. Cost sharing • Vietnam public sector 75% • Indonesia public sector 76-78% • Cote d’Ivoire 47-57% • Large farms: could pay all costs • Small scale farms: should be subsidized • Long term sustainability?

  20. Political support needed • Political support at the highest level to be obtained • To be flowed down to the community level with strong communication campaigns support

  21. Duration and Exit Strategy • The epidemiological situation has to be monitored carefully before an exit strategy can be applied. • Although it cannot be determined in advance whether the campaign will be successful, an exit strategy should be developed. • In addition: • implementation of adequate measures addressing risk factors and re-introduction of the virus