Teaching for Learning In the Era of the Common Core Standards David Foster Silicon Valley Mathematics Initiative www.svmimac.org
Where are we after a decade of High Stakes Accountability? WYTIWYG What You Test Is What You Get!
After a decade of high-stakes accountability promising to equalize performances among students of all demographic classifications, what is happening to the “Gap”?
The Achievement Gap National Achievement of Education Progress (NAEP 2009 Math) The Nation’s Report Card Source: U.S. Department of Education Approximately 10 scale points is equivalent to a grade level of learning
NAEP 2009 8th grade National Ave. 282 Massachusetts (1st) 299 California (49th) 270 Where you live and your background correlates to how you score on tests.
Common Core Standards: A New Direction linking Instruction and Assessment
Mathematical Practice • Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. • Reason abstractly and quantitatively. • Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. • Model with mathematics. • Use appropriate tools strategically. • Attend to precision. • Look for and make use of structure. • Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
45* States, DC, and US Virgin Islands Islands *Washington and Idaho have adopted the CCSS conditionally/provisionally ** Minnesota has adopted the CCSS in ELA only
States have joined Assessment Consortia funded by RttT PARCC States Partnership for Assessment of Readiness of College and Careers (PARCC) is being managed by Achieve, Inc., a Washington-based non-profit. There are 25 states in PARCC. The SMARTER-Balanced Assessment Consortium is being managed by San Francisco-based WestEd and its senior program director, Stanley Rabinowitz. SMARTER-Balanced enlisted 31 states. At this point, both consortia are targeting the first test administration by 2014-15. Both say they will integrate summative or end-of-the-year tests with interim and formative assessments that can guide instruction during the year. Both are promising to include performance-based tasks, such as conducting a science experiment and writing short answers to questions, that are intended to show deeper levels of learning and thinking than multiple choice questions supposedly can measure. Both indicate that technology will play a major role.
PARCC States PARCC States
Current vs. CCSS Current STAR Assessments Proposed CCSS Assessments Grades 3-8 and 11, Grades 9 and 10 available for states that choose to use them Delivered via computer (Paper and pencil option available for 3 years) and are computer adaptive Taken during the final 12 weeks of school Performance tasks and comprehensive end-of -year computer adaptive assessment which will some selected response items Accountability system has not been established yet • Grades 2-11, writing at 4th and 7th • Only paper & pencil option • Taken around 85% of the instructional days • Only multiple choice • Part of the state and federal accountability system
Proposed Elements to the Common Assessment • Online testing • College and career-readiness assessment aimed at 11th grade • Rapid reporting system to inform instruction • Teachers involved in developing and scoring tests • Item types • Short constructed response • Extended constructed response • Technology enhanced • Performance tasks • Selected response
Proposed Timeline • 2011 • 2012 • 2013 • 2014 • 2015 Development of formative tools, processes, and practices underway; Specifications for summative and interim assessments developed Summative and interim item development completed ; Interim item pool become available for use Field testing of items for adaptive summative assessment completed Preliminary achievement standards proposed and other policy definitions adopted Operational summative assessment administered; Final achievement standards verified and adopted Center for K-12 Assessment & Performance Management at ETS
Types of Tasks in Mathematics Novice – short items focused on skills and routinesApprentice – medium performance tasks with scaffoldingExpert – long tasks with high cognitive load and/or complexity.
Task Design Top Entry level (access into task) Core Mathematics - (meeting standards) Top of Ramp (conceptually deeper, beyond) Core Ramp Access Performance AssessmentsTo Inform Instruction And Measure Higher Level Thinking • The Mathematics Assessment Resource Service (MARS) is an NSF funded collaboration between U.C. Berkeley and the Shell Centre in Nottingham England. • The Assessments target grades 2- Geometry and are aligned with the State and NCTM National Math Standards.
Expert Tasks The main point in mathematics teaching is to develop the tactics of problem solving. George Polya
Traffic jam Last Sunday an accident caused a traffic jam 12 miles long on a freeway When the accident was cleared, the cars drove away from the front, one car every two seconds. Estimate how long it took before the last car moved.
SBAC’s Specifications for Math • Written by Hugh Burkhardt and Alan Shoenfeld as commissioned by Linda Darling Hammond for SBAC. • 60% of the SBAC will be assessed using performance assessment and scored using an analytic point scoring rubric (fashion after MARS rubrics) • 40% will be machined scored.
WYTIWYG Gareth Mills at QCA What you TEST is What you GET! Next Generation Assessments – MARS Performance Tasks
The process of studying student work is a meaningful and challenging way to be data-driven, to reflect critically on our instructional practices, and to identify the research we might study to help us think more deeply and carefully about the challenges our students provide us. Rich, complex work samples show us how students are thinking, the fullness of their factual knowledge, the connections they are making. Talking about them together in an accountable way helps us to learn how to adjust instruction to meet the needs of our students. Annenberg Institute of School Reform
Educational Research: Formative Assessment and Student Work to Inform Instruction • Assessing Student Outcomes; Marzano, Pickering, McTighe • Inside the Black Box; Black,Wiliams • Understanding by Design; Wiggins, McTighe • Results Now; Schmoker • Professional Learning Communities at Work; Dufour, Eaker • Accountability for Learning; Reeves • Math Talk Learning Community; Fuson, et al • Normalizing Problems of Practice; Little, Horn • Change the Terms for Teacher Learning; Fullan • Working toward a continuum of professional development; Loucks-Horsley, et al.