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Integumentary System Part 2: Skin Disorders

Integumentary System Part 2: Skin Disorders

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Integumentary System Part 2: Skin Disorders

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  1. Integumentary SystemPart 2: Skin Disorders Unit 3: Integumentary System A&P Chapter 5

  2. Skin Disorders • 1. Chronic Disorders • 2. Infectious Disorders • 3. Burns • 4. Skin Cancers

  3. I. Chronic Skin Disorders • Urticaria (Hives) • Raised, often itchy, red welts on skin surface • Usually due to an allergic reaction (to animal dander, insect bites, pollen, shellfish, nuts, eggs, milk) • Also caused by stress, extreme cold or hot, or illness

  4. Eczema • Chronic skin disorder that involves scaly and itchy rashes • Dry, flaky, blistering skin appears red and inflamed • Intense itching and burning sensations • Can be triggered by allergic reactions to chemicals, fabrics, heat, dryness

  5. Dandruff (Seborrheic dermatitis) • Caused by a yeast • White, flaky, inflammatory skin condition • Often found on the scalp • Not contagious

  6. Psoraiasis • Flaky, silver-white patches called scales • Redness and irritation • Genetic • The body produces too many new skin cells. • Normally skin cell turn around is ~30 days, but with psoraiasis, turn over is around one week.

  7. Albinism • Genetic disorder in which the body cannot produce melanin • Symptoms: absence of color in hair, skin, or iris; light sensitivity; prone to sunburn & skin cancer

  8. II. Infectious Skin Disorders • Impetigo • Bacterial infection • Highly contagious • Causes blisters or sores on face and hands • Common among kids

  9. Acne • Caused by an overproduction of sebum and oil, leading to clogging of the pores • Clogged pores trap bacteria, dead skin cells, and pus (white blood cells) • Inflammation and swelling form red bumps • Pimples deep in the skin can form painful cysts

  10. Normal hair follicle • Acne

  11. Other causes of acne • Genetics • Hormonal changes due to menstrual cycles (females) or stress • Greasy or oily cosmetic and hair products • Certain drugs (such as steroids, testosterone, estrogen) • High levels of humidity and sweating • Diets high in refined sugars

  12. Athlete’s Foot • Fungal infection • Very common on foot or other moist, warm areas of body • Fungus infects the upper layers of the skin, causing itching, cracking, and pain

  13. Ringworm • Not a worm, caused by fungus • Occurs in warm, moist areas with frequent wetness (such as from sweating) and minor injuries to your skin • Itchy, red, raised, scaly patches that may blister and ooze

  14. Necrotizing Fasciitis • “Flesh-eating disease” • Very rare bacterial infection • Necrosis (death) of the subcutaneous layer of skin

  15. MRSA(Methicillin-ResistantStaphylococcus aureus) • Staph infections are caused by bacteria • Staphylococcus bacteria normally lives on the skin with no problems • MRSA is a strain that is resistant to antibiotics and therefore very dangerous or deadly

  16. Signs & Symptoms MRSA • People in hospitals are most likely to get MRSA • Staph skin infections start as small red bumps that resemble pimples, boils or spider bites • Quickly turn into deep, painful abscesses that must be surgically drained • Sometimes the bacteria remain in the skin, but if it penetrates into the body, it can be life-threatening

  17. III. Skin Burns • A burn is tissue damage which destroys cell proteins and cause cell death in the affected areas • Caused by: • Heat • Radiation (sunlight, tanning beds) • Chemicals • Electricity

  18. Degrees of Burns • 1st Degree Burn • Burns only the epidermis (ex. Sunburn) • Redness & Pain, no blistering

  19. Are Tanning Beds Safer? • The salons say yes, but studies show tanning beds still increase the risk of cancer

  20. 2nd Degree Burn • Burns occur in the epidermis and some of the dermis • Redness, Pain, & blistering

  21. 3rd Degree Burn • The epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis are destroyed • Damage to the nerve endings (ex. Exposure to direct fire)

  22. http://video.about.com/firstaid/Burns

  23. Extent of Burns • “Rule of Nines” • Body is divided into 11 regions (each accounting for 9% of total body area) • Critical Burns • Cover more than10% of the body’s surface area • Burns on face, genitals, or completely encircling the hands or feet

  24. Treatment of Critical Burns • Complications: • Infection, hypothermia, dehydration • Intense doses of intravenous fluids to replace electrolyte imbalance • Warm and isolated environment to reduce risk of infection • Skin graft can be done as soon as patient is stable

  25. IV. Skin Cancer • Risk Factors • Age (Older people) • Light-skin • Excessive sun exposure • Genetics (family history) • Chemical exposure • When to see your doctor: • If you have any of the warning signs, are older, or have a family history of skin cancer

  26. Cancer Vocabulary • Cancer – abnormal division of a cell that has undergone a DNA mutation • Tumor – mass of mutated cells • Metastasis - the spread of cancer cells from one part of the body to another

  27. Two Categories of Skin Cancer: • 1) Non-Melanoma • Includes Basal cell carcinoma and Squamous cell carcinoma • 2) Melanoma

  28. Basal Cell Carcinoma • Most common skin cancer • Occurs – in sun-exposed areas • Appearance – pearly or waxy bump or a flat, flesh-colored or brown scar-like legion • Treatment – cryosurgery, surgical removal • 95% of patients easily cured, but it may come back

  29. Squamous Cell Carcinoma • Five times less common than basal cell carcinoma, but more likely to spread to nearby organs • Occurs – on sun-exposed areas • Appearance – firm, red nodule or a flat lesion with a scaly, crusted surface • Treatment – cryosurgery, surgical removal, medication

  30. Melanoma • Most dangerous skin cancer because it can metastasize (spread) and lead to death • Occurs – anywhere on body’s skin • Appearance – large brownish spot with darker speckles or a mole that changes in color, size or bleeds • Men – on trunk, head or neck • Women – lower legs • Treatment – surgical removal, radiation, chemotherapy