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Commodity Feeds

Commodity Feeds

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Commodity Feeds

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  1. Commodity Feeds “By-Products and Co-Products”

  2. Potential By-Products • Animal • Milk • Meat (caution) • Egg • Grain • Milling • Oil production • Baking • Brewing • Distilling • Sugar and starch production • Cane, beet & corn molasses • Salvage candy • Vegetable • Potato by-products • Cull beans • Cotton • Gin trash • Hulls • Seed

  3. When do they replace the usual feedstuffs? • Lower cost • Feed/shortage drought • Improve performance on forage-based diets • Better reproductive performance

  4. Limitations • Moisture content • Nutrient profile • Contaminants • Transportation • Storage • Availability • Human health hazards • Regulations/Perception • Economics • Composition may vary

  5. Example Wet Grains 75% Moisture • Transportation – 24 ton load is 18 tons water • Storage required • Shelf-life – spoilage • Price Example – $25 T is equivalent to $100 T on a dry basis

  6. Cost is generally considered to be relative to the value of corn and soybean meal.

  7. Relative Value (Peterson, J Dairy Sci) TDN [5.46 (corn $/ton) – (SBM $/ton)] 354.6 plus CP [(SBM $/ton) – 0.931 (corn $/ton)] 39.8

  8. Example 77 [5.46 (150) – (250)] 354.6 plus 11 [250 – 0.931 (150)] 39.8

  9. Example (123.56 + 30.50) $154

  10. Microorganisms in rumen • Fiber Digesters • Starch Digesters • * Population shifts as the diet changes. Can affect overall digestion, founder, etc.

  11. Corn • Grain is about 10% CP and 90% TDN • Can also be high moisture or ground ear corn • Most popular concentrate

  12. Proportion of VFA change with Diet • Forage increases acetate • Grain increases propionate • Can affect feed efficiency, marbling, use of ionophores

  13. High Starch containing feeds have a negative effect on forage digestibility

  14. Ely (1995) UK

  15. Soy Hulls • Excellent palatability • Less starch content than grains; therefore, less negative effect on forage utilization • Safer, less incidence of founder

  16. JAS 65:557

  17. Highly digestible fiber feeds do not have the negative effect on forage digestibility

  18. NRC-Beef 2000 updates, PAS 16:69-99

  19. Corn Gluten • By-product of soft drink industry • May be wet or dried • Corn gluten “feed” is around 22-25% CP; corn gluten meal is about 60% CP • Low starch

  20. Distiller’s Grains • Very palatable • High in UIP • Availability due to ethanol

  21. Noble Foundation

  22. Corn Gluten FeedDistillers Grain • High level of Sulfur (around 0.6%) • Limit to 50% of DMI due to its high sulfur content (Cu deficiency and polio)

  23. Wheat Middlings • Seven million tons of flour by-products available • Do not store well – readily absorbs moisture from the air

  24. Wheat Middlings • 20 – 30% starch • Limit to 50% pf DMI due to the rapidly fermentable starch content • Low Calcium, High Phosphorus

  25. Whole Cottonseed • High energy due to oil content • Doesn’t have to be processed • Doesn’t flow well in feeders; should be fed in troughs • Don’t feed to bulls, especially young developing bulls – will affect fertility

  26. No Problem if you balance the ration for energy and protein Energy Corn Soyhulls Protein Corn Gluten Distillers Grains

  27. Special Notes: Modified distillers grains valued at $95.78/ton which includes an $11.78/ton trucking charge. Dried distillers grains (DDGS) were purchased from a feed dealer in 50 lb bags for $250/ton. DDGS could have been purchased at the plant for $186.78 which includes trucking. This would have resulted in a cost of gain of $0.45/pound.

  28. Mid-South Stocker Conference February 24-25, 2009 Lake Barkley Lodge Cadiz, Kentucky www.midsouthstocker.org