Communicating in the Digital Age Chapter Twelve
After reading the material in this chapter, you should be able to: LO12.1 Describe the perceptual process model of communication LO12.2 Describe the process, personal, Physical, and semantic barriers to effective communication LO12.3 Contrast the communication styles of assertiveness, aggressiveness, and nonassertiveness LO12.4 Discuss the primary sources of nonverbal communication
After reading the material in this chapter, you should be able to: LO12.5 Review the five dominant listening styles and 10 keys to effective listening LO12.6 Discuss the impact of information communication technologies (ICT) on productivity LO12.7 Describe the challenges of managing teleworkers, and the advantages and concerns associated with social media at media
Basic Dimensions of the Communication Process • Communication • the exchange of information between a sender and receiver and the inference (perception) of meaning between the individuals involved
A Perceptual Model of Communication • Sender • person wanting to communicate information-the message • Receiver • person, group, or organization for whom the message is intended • Encoding • translates thoughts into code or language that can be understood by others
Question? Alexa is informing her subordinates that the expense reimbursement policy for travel has been significantly modified. Alexa would be considered which of these? • Decoder • Medium • Sender • Noise
A Perceptual Model of Communication • Selecting a Medium • depends on the nature of the message, its intended purpose, type of audience, proximity to the audience, time horizon for disseminating the message, personal preferences, and the complexity of the problem/situation at hand
A Perceptual Model of Communication • Decoding • occurs when receivers receive a message • process of interpreting and making sense of a message • Feedback • receives expresses a reaction to the sender’s message
A Perceptual Model of Communication • Noise • interference with the transmission and understanding of a message
Barriers to Effective Communication • Personal barriers • any individual attribute that hinders communication • Physical barriers • Semantic barriers
Personal Barriers • Variable skills in communicating effectively • Variations in how information is processed and interpreted • Variations in interpersonal trust • Stereotypes and prejudices • Big egos
Personal Barriers (cont.) • Poor listening skills • Natural tendency to evaluate other’s messages • Inability to listen with understanding • Nonverbal communication
Question? Laura works at an office with low-walled cubicles. There is often a lot of background noise and Laura has trouble hearing clients on the phone. This is an example of a ________ barrier. • Process • Physical • Personal • Semantic
Barriers to Effective Communication • Semantics • study of words • Semantic barriers • problems with language in communication • fueled by the growing trend to outsource customer service operations to foreign countries like India
Barriers to Effective Communication • Jargon • represents language or terminology that is specific to a particular profession, group, or company
Interpersonal Communication • Communication competence • performance-based index of an individual’s abilities to effectively use communication behaviors in a given context
Assertiveness, Aggressiveness, and Nonassertiveness • Assertive style • expressive and self-enhancing, but does not take advantage of others. • Aggressive style • expressive and self-enhancing, but takes unfair advantage of others • Nonassertive style • timid and self-denying behavior.
Question? Sunil has an expressive and self-enhancing communication style, which is based on the notion that it is not right or good to violate our own or others' basic human rights. Sunil can be described as having which of these styles? • Aggressive • Nonassertive • Nonverbal • Assertive
Sources of Nonverbal Communication • Nonverbal Communication • any message, sent or received independent of the written or spoken word • includes such factors as use of time and space, distance between persons when conversing, use of color, dress, walking behavior, standing, positioning, seating arrangement, office locations and furnishings.
Question? Travis was in a meeting with his supervisor regarding sales analysis. Travis had his arms folded and legs crossed. Travis's nonverbal behavior communicated which of these? • Semantics • Defensiveness • Aggressiveness • Immediacy
Active Listening • Listening • Process of actively decoding and interpreting verbal messages.
Listening Styles • Appreciative • listens for pleasure, entertainment, or inspiration • Empathetic • interprets messages by focusing on emotions and body language
Question? Dr. Philip interprets messages by focusing on emotions and body language. His listening style can be described as __________. • Appreciative • Empathetic • Discerning • Evaluative
Listening Styles • Comprehensive • organizes specific thoughts and actions and integrates this information by focusing on relationships among ideas
Listening Styles • Discerning • attempt to understand the main message and determine important points • Evaluative • listen analytically and continually formulate arguments and challenges to what is being said
Managing Teleworkers • Teleworkers • People who fulfill some portion of typically office-based job responsibilities outside the office via ICT • also known as telecommuters and distributed workers
Social Media at Work • Social media • uses Internet-based and mobile technologies to generate interactive dialogue with members of a network.
Motives that Affect Participation in Social Networking • Community membership • benefits of belonging to a group • Friendship connections • efficiently interacting with friends • Information value • access to the knowledge and experience of others
Motives that Affect Participation in Social Networking • Participation confidence • fear of looking bad to a large number of people • Participation concerns • privacy and being scammed
Video: A Week Without Technology: Could You Do It? • What business processes are affected by the presence or lack of technology? Is it possible for a company to be competitive today without technology? • How is the perceptual model of communication different when technology is used than if it were not? Which types of communication barriers might be different? • How are the non-verbal aspects of communication affected by technology? • How would you do in Dennis’s situation - could you have lasted the full week?