Communicating in the Digital Age Chapter Fourteen
Learning Objectives LO.1 Explain the perceptual process model of communication, and describe the barriers to effective communication. LO.2 Specify two major impacts of social media that are changing the general communication landscape. LO.3 Contrast the communication styles of assertiveness, aggressiveness, and nonassertiveness. LO.4 Discuss the primary sources of nonverbal communication. LO.5 Review the five dominant listening styles and 10 keys to effective listening.
Learning Objectives (cont.) LO.6 Describe how linguistic styles vary for women and men and what can be done to improve everyone’s communication effectiveness. LO.7 Discuss the formal and informal communication channels. LO.8 Explain the contingency approach to media selection. LO.9 Describe the Internet generation, and discuss the pros and cons of teleworking. LO.10 Specify practical tips for more effective e-mail and cell phone etiquette, and discuss policies for using social media Web sites in the workplace.
Basic Dimensions of the Communication Process • Communication • the exchange of information between a sender and receiver and the inference (perception) of meaning between the individuals involved
A Perceptual Model of Communication • Sender • person wanting to communicate information-the message • Receiver • person, group, or organization for whom the message is intended • Encoding • translates thoughts into code or language that can be understood by others
Question? Alexa is informing her subordinates that the expense reimbursement policy for travel has been significantly modified. Alexa would be considered which of these? • Decoder • Medium • Sender • Noise
A Perceptual Model of Communication • Selecting a Medium • depends on the nature of the message, its intended purpose, the audience, proximity to the audience, time constraints, and personal skills and preferences.
A Perceptual Model of Communication • Decoding • occurs when receivers receive a message • process of interpreting and making sense of a message • Feedback • the sender gets a reaction from the receiver
A Perceptual Model of Communication • Noise • anything that interferes with the transmission and understanding of a message
Barriers to Effective Communication • Personal barriers • any individual attribute that hinders communication • Physical barriers • Semantic barriers
Personal Barriers • Variable skills in communicating effectively • Variations in how information is processed and interpreted • Variations in interpersonal trust • Stereotypes and prejudices • Big egos
Personal Barriers (cont.) • Poor listening skills • Natural tendency to evaluate other’s messages • Inability to listen with understanding • Nonverbal communication
Question? Laura works at an office with low-walled cubicles. There is often a lot of background noise and Laura has trouble hearing clients on the phone. This is an example of a ________ barrier. • Process • Physical • Personal • Semantic
Barriers to Effective Communication • Semantics • study of words • Semantic barriers • problems with language in communication • fueled by the growing trend to outsource customer service operations to foreign countries like India
Barriers to Effective Communication • Jargon • represents language or terminology that is specific to a particular profession, group, or company
Interpersonal Communication • Communication competence • the ability to communicate effectively in specific situations
Question? Sunil has an expressive and self-enhancing communication style, which is based on the notion that it is not right or good to violate our own or others' basic human rights. Sunil can be described as having which of these styles? • Aggressive • Nonassertive • Nonverbal • Assertive
Tips for Saying No • Don’t feel like you have to provide a yes or no answer on the spot. • Be honest, and start your response with the word no. • Use nonverbal assertive behaviors to reinforce your words. • Use verbal assertive behaviors.
Nonverbal Communication • Nonverbal Communication • any message, sent or received independent of the written or spoken word • includes such factors as use of time and space, distance between persons when conversing, use of color, dress, walking behavior, standing, positioning, seating arrangement, office locations and furnishings.
Question? Travis was in a meeting with his supervisor regarding sales analysis. Travis had his arms folded and legs crossed. Travis's nonverbal behavior communicated which of these? • Semantics • Defensiveness • Aggressiveness • Immediacy
Active Listening • Listening • Process of actively decoding and interpreting verbal messages. • requires cognitive attention and information processing
Listening Styles • Appreciative • listens for pleasure, entertainment, or inspiration • Empathetic • interprets messages by focusing on emotions and body language
Question? Dr. Philip interprets messages by focusing on emotions and body language. His listening style can be described as __________. • Appreciative • Empathetic • Discerning • Evaluative
Listening Styles • Comprehensive • organizes specific thoughts and actions and integrates this information by focusing on relationships among ideas
Listening Styles • Discerning • attempt to understand the main message and determine important points • Evaluative • listen analytically and continually formulate arguments and challenges to what is being said
Formal Communication Channels • Upward communication • involves communicating with someone at a higher organizational level • Downward communication • occurs when someone at a higher level in the organization conveys information or a message downward to one or more others.
Formal Communication Channels • Horizontal communication • flows among coworkers and between different work units, and its main purpose is coordination • External communication • two-way flow of information between employees and a variety of stakeholders outside the organization
Informal Communication Channels • Informal communication channels • Do not follow the chain of command or organizational structure. • Grapevine • Unofficial communication system of the informal organization.
Informal Communication Channels • Liaison individuals • Those who consistently pass along grapevine information to others. • Organizational moles • Those who use the grapevine to enhance their power and status.
Media Richness • Media richness • involves the capacity of a given communication medium to convey information and promote understanding • based on feedback, channel, type of communication, and language source
Video: A Week Without Technology: Could You Do It? • What business processes are affected by the presence or lack of technology? Is it possible for a company to be competitive today without technology? • How is the perceptual model of communication different when technology is used than if it were not? Which types of communication barriers might be different? • How are the non-verbal aspects of communication affected by technology? • How would you do in Dennis’s situation - could you have lasted the full week?