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Mobutu Sese Seko. By Breanne Windle & Patty Beatson. Zaire Before Mobutu. -European governments gained interest in African colonization -Belgium wanted to make Congo a colony of theirs -King of Belgium owned a huge corporation in Congo that was running the country
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Mobutu SeseSeko By Breanne Windle & Patty Beatson
Zaire Before Mobutu • -European governments gained interest in African colonization • -Belgium wanted to make Congo a colony of theirs • -King of Belgium owned a huge corporation in Congo that was running the country • -Corporation was rubber and copper industry • -Working conditions were horrific
-Congolese began to hate Europeans for the brutal treatment they were putting them through • -Congo’s government wasn’t making radical enough changes • -Congolese broke out in violence against the Europeans • -Europeans had to evacuate for their own safety • -Army Colonel, Mobutu Sese Seko (a Congolese himself) took over control
Mobutu Gains Power • Educated at a Catholic mission school he served in the Belgian colonial army. In 1960 he reached the rank of colonel and was chief of staff to the Congolese Army. • Patrice Lumumba was elected prime minister of Congo in 1960 and in August of that year, with the support of the United States and Belgium, Mobutu led a military coup and ousted Lumumba from power.
November 1965, Mobutu staged another military coup to overthrow Moise Tshombe • In the presidential election, Mobutu was the only candidate. This secured his position in power.
Mobutu in Power • October 1971: Mobutu established a policy of Africanization and restored the country name back to Zaire. • Made a nationality law that abolished the use of European names for people and places. • Exploited copper deposits.
Popular Movement of the Revolution was the only political party allowed in Zaire. • Trade unions were consolidated into a single union. • Those who were not in support of Mobutu’s rule he dealt with through violence. • Several military forces were set up, who had a sole purpose of protecting protect him • He consolidated power by publically executing political rivals. He then switched to tactics of bribery. • Mobutu had a very large personal fortune and it was just about equivalent to the country's foreign debt at the time.
People were left to starve and work in terrible conditions which meant sometimes going months without being paid while Mobutu had gigantic amounts of money. Also the nations roads were falling apart. • Mobutu used the propaganda to create a heroic image of himself and ensure that others through of him as a god. • The only thing that was truly done for the nation was the establishment of strong ties between Zaire and the US. The country was left in major debt while Mobutu gained riches. • International relations: United States, Belgium, France and the Soviet Union.
Destruction of Mobutu • In November 1996 Mobutu issued an order forcing Tutsis to leave Zaire on penalty of death; they erupted in rebellion. • May 1997: rebel forces led by Laurent Kabila forced Mobutu to flee the country. • Mobutu went into temporary exile in Togo but lived mostly in Morocco. • Laurent Kabila took over as president
After Mobutu’s rule, the country continued to face many coups and conflicts which are still going on today. • The nation now as compared to the nation under Mobutu would probably be about the same in terms of being better off.
Bibliography • Time, By This. "Mobutu Sese Seko." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 08 Nov. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobutu_Sese_Seko>. • Staff, Chief Of. "Sese Seko Mobutu." Spartacus Educational - Home Page. Web. 08 Nov. 2010. <http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/COLDmobutu.htm>. • "BBC News - Democratic Republic of Congo Country Profile." BBC News - Home. Web. 14 Nov. 2010. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/country_profiles/1076399.stm>. • "Congo's President Joseph Kabila: Dynasty or Travesty?" Toward Freedom. Web. 14 Nov. 2010. <http://towardfreedom.com/home/content/view/1171/1/>. • "Google Images." Google. Web. 14 Nov. 2010. <http://www.google.com/imghp>.