Would you expect these things to have similar or different chemical compounds? If they all contain large quantities of carbon, what characteristics do you think carbon must have? What other elements do you think are abundant in the human body?
A. OrganicChemistry Thinking question: What does the word ORGANIC mean? 1. An ORGANIC COMPOUND is a compound that contains the element CARBON.
a. Each CARBON has 4 available ELECTRONS to make 4 COVALENT bonds at the same time.Thinking question: What is a COVALENT BOND?
b. CARBON can combine with many other ELEMENTS in various shapes. Ex: Straight chain, branched, or ring-shaped
c. This property of CARBON is why there is such diversity amongst living things.
d. CARBON-based compounds make up entire organisms, and are also present in foods that we eat.
B. Macro-Molecules Thinking question: What does the prefix “macro” mean? 1. CARBON-based molecules bond with each other to form large molecules called MACROMOLECULES.
2. MACROMOLECULESare also called POLYMERS. a. POLYMERS are molecules made of repeating identical units, called MONOMERS. Ex: (If the necklace represents the POLYMER, then a single bead represents aMONOMER.)
3. MACROMOLECULESare organized into four categories that make up all organisms: a. Carbohydrates (sugars) b. Lipids (fats) c. Proteins (muscle) d. Nucleic Acid (DNA & RNA)
Thinking question: Where are MACROMOLECULES found in humans? Wide-spread Wide- Spread High conc. In muscles DNA and RNA (in the cell nucleus) Blood Fat Nerve cells/tissue
Thinking question: Which foods contain MACROMOLECULES? Candy (Sugar) Bread products,Pasta, Rice, Potatoes (Starch) Cereal (Sugar and starch) Fruits/Vegetables Meat Seafood Beans/Legumes Poultry Everything you eat that was once a living organism.* *WHY?? Milk Cheese Animal fat Oil Butter
B. Carbo-hydrates 1. CARBOHYDRATESprovide energy and cell structure in organisms.
2. CARBOHYDRATES are made of CARBON, HYDROGEN and OXYGEN. a. For each CARBON, there are two HYDROGENS and one OXYGEN.
Ex: C___H___O6 3. The MONOMERof a CARBOHYDRATE is called a MONOSACCHARIDE (simple sugar).
a. GLUCOSE (C6H12O6) is aMONOSACCHARIDE which is a major energy source for organisms.
4. Two MONOSACCHARIDES can join to make a DISACCHARIDE. a. DISACCHARIDES are also energy sources. Ex: Two GLUCOSE (M.S.) molecules form MALTOSE (D.S.).
5. Longer chains are called POLYSACCHARIDES. a. GLYCOGEN is a POLYSACCHARIDE. It stores energy to be used between meals, in animals
b. STARCH is a POLYSACCHARIDEfound in plants that is used to store energy.
6. CARBOHYDRATES also provide cell structure. a. CELLULOSE, which makes up cell walls in plants, is a structural CARBOHYDRATE.
b. CHITIN is a POLYSACCHARIDE that makes up the exoskeleton of insects and shellfish.
C. Lipids 1.LIPIDS are made of CARBON,HYDROGEN and OXYGEN. a. LIPIDS make up fats, oils and waxes in living things. ex: Bees produce wax to build hives.
a. Each TRIGLYCERIDE includes three FATTY ACIDS and one GLYCEROL; they store energy in fat cells.
3. FATS can be SATURATED or UNSATURATED. a. SATURATED FATS – all single bonds between carbons in the chain. The chains are straight.
- SATURATED FATS are solids at room temp. They make up the solid fat in your body.
b. UNSATURATED FATS – at least one carbon to carbon double bond in the chain. The chains are bent.
-UNSATURATED FATS are liquids at room temp. They are found in oils.
4. Cell membranes are made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS (phosphate head, glycerol, and 2 fatty acid tails). a. Because LIPIDS repel water (HYDROPHOBIC), they create barriers between cells.
a. HORMONESallow cells to send chemical messages about growth and development.
D. Proteins 1. PROTEINS contain CARBON, HYDROGEN, OXYGEN, NITROGEN, SULFUR (some). a. The MONOMER of a PROTEIN is called an AMINO ACID.
2. AMINO ACIDSshare the same basic structure. a. CARBON forms 4 bonds: -1 bond to HYDROGEN -1 bond to an amino group (-NH2) -1 bond to a carboxyl group (-COOH) -1 bond to a variable (changing) group (-R)
AMINO GROUP HYDROGEN CARBOXYL GROUP VARIABLE GROUP
3. There are 20 different AMINO ACIDS, which combine to make POLYPEPTIDES – long chains of AMINO ACIDS.
a. PROTEINS provide structural support in cells and are found in the cell membrane.
b. Special proteins, called ENZYMES, speed up chemical reactions in cells.
c. PROTEINS can take on two shapes, analphaHELIX (coil), or a betaPLEATED SHEET (folded paper).
d. There are 4 levels of protein structure: -Primary structure = amino acid chain -Secondary structure = folding into a repeating pattern (helix or pleated sheet) -Tertiary structure = 3D folding of helix or sheet -Quaternary structure = Interaction of multiple 3D proteins
E. NucleicAcids 1. NUCLEIC ACIDS store and transmit genetic information. Thinking question: What is genetic information?
2. The MONOMER of a NUCLEIC ACIDS is a NUCLEOTIDE. a. All NUCLEOTIDES contain three pieces: a phosphate, a sugar (CARBOHYDRATE) and a base.
a. There are two types of NUCLEIC ACIDS:DNA and RNA. b. A NUCLEOTIDE with 3 phosphate groups is ATP (adenosine triphosphate). This is used as cell energy.
F. Synthesis 1. DEHYDRATION SYNTHESISis the reaction that occurs when joining two MONOMERS. a. A water molecule is lost for every one bond between MONOMERS.
G. Breakdown 1. HYDROLYSIS is the reaction that occurs when breaking two MONOMERS(opp. of d.s.) a. A water molecule must be added to separate POLYMERSinto MONOMERS