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Airspace. Kyle Black Carol Cushman. What is airspace? “The portion of the atmosphere above a particular land area, especially above a nation.”. In order to fly in the airspace, do you think certain rules or requirements must be met? Of course! VFR weather minimums apply to us…
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Airspace Kyle Black Carol Cushman
What is airspace? “The portion of the atmosphere above a particular land area, especially above a nation.”
In order to fly in the airspace, do you think certain rules or requirements must be met? • Of course! • VFR weather minimums apply to us… • Equipment and communication requirements too…
Airspace Classification What are the two broad categories of airspace? • Controlled • Class A • Class B • Class C • Class D • Class E • Uncontrolled • Class G
Airspace Classification Why do we have different classifications? • Primary reason is the separation of IFR and VFR traffic. • What is IFR traffic? • Pilots which are properly certificated can fly in controlled airspace when weather minimums are below VFR.
Airspace Terms • Floor • Used to refer to the lowest altitude at which the airspace segment begins • Ceiling • Upper limit of the airspace
Class G Airspace • Are you required to communicate with ATC? • No • Moving from uncontrolled to controlled airspace due to the increasing need to coordinate the movement of air traffic.
Class G Airspace • What are the dimensions? • Surface to 14,500’ • Surface to 700’ / 1200’ AGL • Weather minimums? • Depends on day or night and altitude…
Controlled Airspace • Separation of air traffic is primary ATC function – radar being the primary tool. • FARs require an aircraft transponder (if aircraft is equipped), whenever flying in controlled airspace. • What is a transponder? • Electronic device aboard the airplane which when assigned an individual code helps to distinguish the aircraft from others in the area.
Transponder • Mode A • Usually able to be set to any of 4,096 codes • Mode C • Mode A with altitude encoding equipment • Mode S • Uses advanced technology, also compatible with Mode C altitude reporting equipment
Transponder • When is a Mode C Transponder required? • Class A airspace • Class B airspace • In and within 30 nm of Class B primary airports • Class C airspace • In and above • At or above 10,000’ MSL • Excluding airspace at and below 2500’ AGL • Rule applies in all airspace within 48 contiguous states and District of Columbia
Class E • No communication requirements • Cannot fly in weather below VFR minimums unless instrument rated. • What are the dimensions? • Dimensions vary… • Surface surrounding an airport to 17,999’ • 700’ / 1200’ to 17,999’ • 14,500’ to 17,999’ • Above FL600
How about airways? • Victor or Federal Airways • Extends 4 nm to either side of centerline (total of 8 nm wide) What are Class E weather minimums?
Class D • Where is Class D airspace found? • Airport with operating control tower with no radar services • Only Class D when control tower is operating • What are the communication requirements? • Two-way radio communication with the control tower must be established. • What does it mean to establish two-way radio communication?
Class D • What are the usual dimensions? • 4 nm radius • Surface to approximately 2500’ AGL • Lateral dimensions may change depending on instrument approach procedures • What are the weather minimums?
Class C • What are considerations that may be taken to designate an airspace as Class C versus just Class D? • Safety • Users’ needs • Volume of air traffic • Provides radar service to all IFR and VFR aircraft • What are the communication requirements? • Two-way radio communication with the controlling facility must be established
Class C • What are the usual dimensions? • 5 nm radius core surface to 4,000’ above arpt elev. • 10 nm radius shelf extends from 1,200’ to 4,000’ above arpt elev. • May vary depending on airport environment • What are the weather minimums?
Class B • Where might Class B airspace be found? • Country’s busiest airports • May serve several airports in the area, although designated for one major terminal • What are the communication requirements? • Two-way radio communication with the controlling facility must be established and a CLEARANCE must be obtained prior to entrance
Class B • What are the usual dimensions? • Usually extends to 10,000’ MSL • Designed to serve needs of the airport it surrounds • Often resembles an “upside down wedding cake” • What are the weather minimums?
Class A • Where’s Waldo? Just kidding...Where is Class A airspace? It’s not depicted on sectionals… • Covers majority of the contiguous states and Alaska and extends 12 nm out from coast • 18,000’ MSL to FL600 • What are the communication requirements? • IFR clearance required meaning… • Must be on IFR Flight Plan • IFR equipped aircraft • Instrument rated pilot • Which means...what? • NO MINIMUM WEATHER REQUIREMENTS…woohoo!
We just talked about various airspaces and weather minimums, do you think as a brand new private pilot these would be your personal minimums? • Why or why not?
Special VFR • In addition to VFR minimums, to operate within Class B, C, D, or E airspace which extend to the surface around an airport • Ground visibility must be at least 3 sm • Ceilings must be at least 1,000’ AGL
Special VFR • What is a Special VFR clearance? • Allows for operation within the surface areas of Class B, C, D, or E airspace when VFR minimums are not met. • What are the minimums required for a Special VFR clearance? • 1 sm • Ability to remain clear of clouds • Why might you want to get a Special VFR clearance?
Airspeed Limitations • Speed limits in the sky? • Why? Where? • Higher congestion • Lower altitudes • Below 10,000 MSL • Max indicated 250 knots • Operating within Class C or D airspace, at or below 2,500’ above surface, 4 nm from primary airport • Max indicated 200 knots • Applies to airspace underlying Class B and in VFR corridors through Class B YES!
Special Use Airspace • What are the different Special Use Airspaces? • Alert Areas • Military Operations Areas (MOAs) • Warning Areas • Restricted Areas • Prohibited Areas • Controlled Firing Areas • National Security Areas
Alert Areas • Shown on aeronautical charts to inform of unusual types of aerial activities • Parachute jumping • Glider towing • High concentrations of student pilot training
Military Operations Area (MOA) • What takes place in an MOA? • Military training • Military maneuvers • Specified floors and ceilings • Are VFR aircraft allowed to fly through an active MOA? • Yes, extreme caution should be used
Warning Areas • Where are they found? • Extend from 3 nm outward from the coast • What type of activity is conducted? • Activity which can be hazardous to nonparticipating aircraft • Possibly: • Aerial gunnery • Guided missiles
Restricted Areas • What type of activity is conducted in a restricted area? • Artillery firing • Aerial gunnery • Guided Missiles • Do we need permission to fly through it? • Yes – by the controlling agency
Prohibited Areas • Why are prohibited areas established? • Security or reasons of national welfare • Flight of aircraft is prohibited • Can permission be obtained to fly through it? • Yes – from the controlling agency • Will we get it? – No…not unless we’re flying Air Force One, or close to it…
Controlled Firing Areas • What is special about a controlled firing area? • Spotter aircraft, radar, or ground lookout personnel are used to determine if an aircraft might be approaching the area • Activities are discontinued if a non-participating aircraft is approaching • Not depicted on aeronautical charts
National Security Areas • Established at locations where increased security and safety of ground facilities is required. • It is “requested” to voluntarily avoid flying through area • Flight through may be prohibited in some cases – notified through NOTAMs
Military Training Routes • Why are they established? • Low-level, high-speed military training flights • Where? • Generally established below 10,000’ MSL for speeds in excess of 250 knots • Routes at and below 1,500’ AGL designed to be flown under VFR • Routes above 1,500’ AGL primarily for IFR
Temporary Flight Restrictions • Why are they created? What do they do? • Provide a safe environment for rescue/relief operations • Prevent unsafe congestion of sightseeing or other aircraft above an incident or event • Other reasons? • How do we know they exist? • NOTAMs
Terminal Radar Service Areas • Not a controlled airspace • By contacting approach, radar services can be provided • Participation is not mandatory
Air Defense Identification Zones • Identifies U.S. international airspace boundaries • Must file an IFR or defense VFR (DVFR) flight plan for all ops that enter or exit an ADIZ • Requires operating transponder with Mode C capability and two-way radio to make position reports