Chapter 3 the Basics of Fashion Lesson 2.3 Design and Color
By Design • Successful and legendary classic styles are not theatrical, but memorable. The principles and elements of design are used to create both eye-pleasing and financially successful styles.
The Principles • The principles of design are the fundamental rules that guide good design, whether for a garment, a home furnishing, or a print media advertisement. • The design principles include: • Balance • Contrast • Rhythm • Unity • Proportion
The Principles • Balance can be achieved by placing equal weights at equal distance from the center to create –formal balance. • Informal Balance – can be achieved by moving a heavier weight to the center and the lighter weight to the outer edge.
The Principles • Contrast or (Emphasis) is what attracts your attention at first glance. • Opposite sizes • Opposite colors
The Principles • Rhythm creates eye movement and occurs when an element is repeated. • Repeating Color • Example: white collar shirt – white cuffs on a dark dress
The Principles • Unity links the visual elements, making them appear to belong together • Example: Wearing a tie that contains small amounts of the color of the jacket help unite the outfit
The Principles • Proportion relates the size and shape of all the elements used in a design. • Example a short jacket with a long skirt can be in proportion
The Elements • The elements of design include lines, shapes, texture, and color. • The principles are applied to the elements, which come together to define the design
The Elements • Lines can be curved or straight and flowing or pointed • Designed with seams • Waist lines • Sleeves
The Elements • Shapes or silhouettes are formed when lines enclose a space. • Hourglass • Rectangle • Triangle
The Elements • Texture is the feel of the design and can be created using different weaves of fabric or visually with lines. • The use of color in the design can affect: • Moods • Feelings • Emotions
The Elements • All designs contain the elements, but application of the principles determines how pleasing the design will be to the viewer.
Color • Color is important to fashion that a whole association exists just to predict trends in color. • Two associations are: • Color Marketing Group • Color Association of the United State (CAUS)
Forecasts • CAUS • Founded in 1915 and is the OLDEST association • Established when WW1 made it difficult to get color forecasts from Europe • Textile Industry needed forecast for upcoming production runs • A committee of U.S. textile professionals was formed • “Color Card” issued twice a year to members • Approximately 1,000 members
Color Traditions • Culturally, colors can take on significant meanings that can be fashionably applied to garments. • Asian culture – red means happiness • Jewish traditions – red means love and blue means glory • U.S.A. – red, white, and blue mean patriotism • CAUS standardized our flag and called it “Old Glory Red” and “Old Glory Blue” • Colors affect people’s sense and either attract or repel buyers
Chapter 2 Basics of Fashion 2.4 Textiles and Construction
The Foundation • The textile industry is the foundation for the fashion industry • Fashion designers create using textiles • Designers look to the textile industry to forecast what’s coming for the next season and to offer a new medium for the designer to shape.
Nature’s Fabrics • Fibers are the thin threads that are spun into yarn • Yarn is woven into fabric • In the early 1900s the majority of fabrics were made from three natural fibers: • Silk • Wool • Cotton
Nature’s Fabrics • Silk was used to richly dress royalty • It’s lightweight and can keep the skin warm or cool • It’s made from the cocoon of a silkworm, which eats only mulberry leaves. • When you unravel the fiber produced by the worm it produces a filament • Filament is a long continuous fiber and may be 1,100 yards long • Silk is shiny because the fiber is made up of triangular shapes which reflects the light
Nature’s Fabrics • Wool fibers are produced from animal hair called fleece. • Most wool is from sheep. • Angora goats • Llamas • Australia produces more wool than any other country.
Nature’s Fabrics • Cotton fibers are produced from the seed pods of the cotton plant • Cotton bloom, wither, and then fall • Leaves a green pod called a boll • The bolls ripen and pop open exposing the cotton fibers • Cotton makes up more than 40% of the fiber production worldwide • India and the United States are the biggest producers of cotton
Nature’s Fabrics • Major use of cotton fabric is for the production of denim • The name originated from Nimes, France (serge de dnimes) • Shortened to Denim • Denim was used by Levi Strauss to produce a long-lasting pant (Jeans) for California miners
Man-Made Fibers • Fibers can be produced using a combination of cellulose and chemicals or may be produced with chemicals alone • Cellulose fibers are produced using plants combined with chemical processes • Rayon • Acetate • Triacetate
Man-Made Fiber • Synthetic fibers are produced using only chemicals • Polyester • Nylon • Spandex • Acrylic • Petroleum- based chemicals produce a majority of synthetic fibers
Man-Made Fibers • The mass production of fabrics (textile industry) made the movement of fashion from royalty to the public possible.
Under Construction • Findings are the things used, besides the main fabric, that are needed to complete the garments • Zippers • Buttons • Thread • Lining Materials • Trim
Putting it Together • The cost of a garment is directly related to the techniques used in construction of the garment. • Garments can be poorly made • Poor quality and construction of garment can cause the customer to return the product to the store. • Multiple returns with the same construction problem will involved the manufacturer to correct of pay for the problem. The manufacturer in turn gains no profit. • Example: Product Recalls
Putting it Together • Stitching is the interlocking or interlooping of thread used to join two pieces of fabric. • Seam is the joint at which the two pieces of fabric meet • Level of importance • Fabric • Stitching • The better the stitch, the better the quality, the more thread use, means more expensive to produce.
Putting it Together • Signs of a quality item • No raw edges • No loose thread • No broke stitches • Look for buttonholes that are sized right for the button • Ratcheting is when a zipper comes apart when stress is applied to the two sides. It indicates a cheap zipper that will not last.
Putting it Together • Companies that produce high quality garments perform three inspections: • 1st while the garment is still under construction • 2nd when the product is finished • 3rd inspection is performed on all or at least a random sampling of the garments produced