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The Cranial Nerves

The Cranial Nerves

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The Cranial Nerves

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  1. The Cranial Nerves DR. S. H. KHAN

  2. Names of cranial nerves • I Ⅰ Olfactory nerve • II Ⅱ Optic nerve • III Ⅲ Oculomotor nerve • IV Ⅳ Trochlear nerve • V Ⅴ Trigeminal nerve • VI Ⅵ Abducent nerve • VII Ⅶ Facial nerve • VIIIⅧ Vestibulocochlear nerve • IX Ⅸ Glossopharyngeal nerve • X Ⅹ Vagus nerve • XI Ⅺ Accessory nerve • XII Ⅻ Hypoglossal nerve

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  5. Classification of cranial nerves • Sensory cranial nerves: contain only afferent (sensory) fibers • I. Olfactory nerve • II. Optic nerve • VIII. Vestibulocochlear nerve • Motor cranial nerves: contain only efferent (motor) fibers • III. Oculomotor nerve • IV. Trochlear nerve • VI. Abducent nerve • XI. Accessory nerve • XII. Hypoglossal nerve • Mixed nerves: contain both sensory and motor fibers--- • V. Trigeminal nerve, • VII. Facial nerve, • IX. Glossopharyngeal nerve • X. Vagus nerve

  6. Sensory cranial nerves

  7. Olfactory nerve (I) Olfactory mucosa → Cribriform foramina → Olfactory bulb

  8. Optic nerve (II) Ganglion cell → Optic canal → Lateral geniculate body

  9. Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII) Vestibular ganglionVestibular nuclei Internal acoustic meatus Cochlear ganglion Cochlear nuclei

  10. Motor cranial nerves

  11. Oculomotor nerve (III) • Main action-supplies • Superior, inferior and medial recti; inferior obliquus; levator palpebrae superioris • Sphincter pupillea and ciliary muscle • Ciliary ganglion: lies between optic nerve and lateral rectus Oculomotor nerve

  12. Abducent nerve Accessory nerve

  13. Hypoglossal nerve Hypoglossal nerve (XII)

  14. Oculamotor paralysis Abducent nerve injury

  15. Mixed cranial nerves

  16. Trigeminal nerve (V)

  17. Branches Ophthalmic nerve • Sensory • Leave the skull through the superior orbital fissure, to enter orbital cavity • Branches • Frontal nerve • Lacrimal nerve • Nasociliary nerve

  18. Distribution: • Cornea • Skin of forehead, scalp, eyelids, nose • Mucosa of nose & paranasal sinues

  19. Maxillary nerve • sensory • Leave skull through foramen rotundum • Branches • Infraorbital nerve • Zygomatic nerve • Superior alveolar nerve • Pterygopalatine nerve

  20. Distribution: • Skin of face over maxilla • Teeth of upper jaw • Mucosa of nose, maxillary sinus and palate

  21. Mandibular nerve • Mixed • Leave the skull through the foramen ovale to enter the infratemporal fossa • Branches • Auriculotemporal nerve • Buccal nerve • Lingual nerve • Inferior alveolar nerve • Nerve of masticatory muscles

  22. Distribution: MOTOR: • Muscles of mastication, mylohyoid, and anterior belly of digastric SENSORY: • Skin of cheek, over mandible and side of head • Teeth and gum of lower jaw • TM joint • Mucosa of mouth and anterior 2/3 of tongue

  23. Facial nerve (VII)

  24. Course: leaves skull through internal acoustic meatus, facial canal and stylomastoid foramen, it then enters parotid gland where it divides into five branches which supply facial muscles

  25. Branches within facial canal • Greater petrosal nerve • Nerve to stapedius muscle • Chorda tympani Terminal branches within parotid gland • Temporal • Zygomatic • Buccal • Marginal mandibular • Cervical

  26. Branches outside of facial canal • Temporal • Zygomatic • Buccal • Marginal mandibular • Cervical

  27. Function Motor • Muscles of face ( facial expression) and scalp • Stapadius, post. Bally of digastric Sensory • Taste from ant. 2/3 of tongue, floor of mouth and palate (Chorda tympani ) Secretomotor (parasympathetic) • Submandibular and sublingual salivary glands • Lacrimal gland • Glands of nose & palate

  28. Injury to the facial nerve Bell’s palsy (low. Motor neuron lesion)

  29. Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)

  30. Course: leaves the skull via jugular foramen Branches • Lingual branches : to taste buds and mucosa of posterior third of tongue • Pharyngeal branches : take part in forming the pharyngeal plexus • Tympanic nerve : fibers via tympanic and lesser petrosal nerves to otic ganglion, with postganglionic fibers via auriculotemporal to parotid gland • Carotid sinus branch : innervations to both carotid sinus and glomus • Others: tonsillar and stylophayngeal branches Otic ganglion: situated just below foramen ovale

  31. Vagus nerve (X)

  32. Branches in neck • Pharyngeal • Superior laryngeal nerve: • Internal branch • External branch • Branches to carotid body • Right recurrent laryngeal n. • Cervical cardiac branches : descending to terminate in cardiac plexus

  33. Superior laryngeal nerve Internal branch External branch

  34. Branches in thorax • Cardiac • Left recurrent laryngeal n. • Pulmonary • esophageal

  35. Branches in abdomen • Anterior and posterior gastric branches • Hepatic branches: join hepatic plexus and then supply liver and gallbladder • Celiac branches • Renal

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