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  1. Preparation for CST Exam • Biomedical Sciences • Diagnostic Procedures • Surgical Procedures • Surgical Anatomy

  2. Biomedical Questions!!!

  3. The Biomedical Sciences • Robotics • What generation of robots that have been developed work without supervision by a human controller? • third generation • What term is used to refer to performing surgery with robotic arms at a distance? • telesurgery

  4. What important component of the computer translates the surgeon’s hand movements to the robotic arms? • micromanipulators • A robotic arm with Cartesian geometry refers to what kind of movement? • x, y, and z axes

  5. What is the technical term for robotic arms? • mainipulators • A robot arm that can move in three dimensions is referred to as having: • degrees of rotation

  6. What important component of the computer translates the surgeon’s hand movements to the robotic arms? • micromanipulators • A robotic arm with Cartesian geometry refers to what kind of movement? • x, y, and z axes

  7. The robotic arms’ clockwise and counterclockwise movements around an axis are referred to as: • degrees of rotation • A right and left movement of the robotic arm is called: • yaw

  8. Generally, where on the OR table is the robotic arm positioned for surgeries of the lower abdomen? • top (by the patient’s head) • What is the term that refers to the type of hearing possessed by humans and robots? • binaural hearing

  9. What term refers to the robots ability to differentiate between two objects? • resolution • What term is used to refer to remotely controlled robots? • telechir

  10. What term is used to refer to the rotating movement of the robotic arm? • roll • When performing a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, approximately where should the robotic arm be positioned on the OR table? • patient’s right side; mid-thigh

  11. When setting the lower limit of the robotic arm, what is the rule of thumb for distance from the patient’s skin surface? • 1 centimeter or less • When performing a laparoscopic cholecystectomy on an obese patient, what can be done to creat additional space between the elbow of the robotic arm and the patient? • tilt mechanism

  12. Answer the next 3 questions based on the following case study: A surgeon will be performing a laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication and prefers access ports located in the patient’s midline. • Where should the robotic arm be placed on the operating room table? • left or right side; lower abdominal region • How should the leg be positioned on the side where the robotic arm is positioned? • extended laterally, with the leg supported

  13. Once the trocars and manipulator have been placed, what position is the operating room table placed? • Reverse Trendelenburg • The robotic arm should be positioned on the operating table prior to positioning the patient. • False

  14. Answer the next 3 questions based on the following case study: A surgeon is using surface-based registration in order to perform a difficult resection of a benign tumor of the brain. • What is used to create the initial images of the brain? • magnetic resonance imaging • In the operating room, what piece of equipment is necessary to obtain three-dimensional coordinates in order to superimpose the scan-based images of the brain on the head of the patient? • Laser

  15. During the surgical procedure, the surgeon is able to track the position of the tips of the instruments due to the use of the imaging system. • True • What term is used to describe the attainment of a three-dimensional simulation of the images of a patient’s tissues in order for the surgeon to practice prior to the surgical procedure? • deformable modeling

  16. What term refers to robotic vision that is analogous to human vision? • binocular vision • Which of the following robotic devices requires sterilization? • collar

  17. What is the number of degrees of freedom of the human arm in which the robotic manipulator is compared to? • 7 • What term refers to the up and down movement of the robotic arm? • pitch

  18. A concern in the development of robotic vision is that improved sensitivity causes a decrease in resolution. • True • When performing a laparoscopic cholecystectomy with a robotic arm, what anatomical landmark is used to line yup the endoscope? • umbilicus

  19. On the keyboard, what keys can be used for shortcuts to commands? • Function Keys • Which side or click of the mouse performs the majority of its general functions? • left click

  20. What term refers to the openings on the back of the CPU used to plug in various computer hardware cables? • ports • One kilobyte equals _______________? • 1,000 bytes

  21. What device is required in order to connect to the internet? • Modem • After the computer is turned on, what term is used to refer to the general background that appears on the monitor? • desktop

  22. Which of the following is highlighted in the Start menu on the desktop to quickly access the documents submenu? • opening a document • Which is used to quickly move up and down within a document? • scroll bar

  23. What menu is accessed to Shut Down the computer? • start menu • What is recommended for use to protect the computer from high electric voltages? • Surge protector

  24. What bar shows documents and applications that are open and allows the user to switch between them? • taskbar • What is the name for the bar that includes functions such as Bold, Font Size and Underlining? • formatting toolbar

  25. What is the shortcut for enabling the Underline function? • Ctrl-U • If a toolbar does not appear on the screen, which menu contains Toolbars, the function used to add them to the screen? • View

  26. To change the style of lettering in a document, what function is preformed? • font function • On which toolbar is the center function located? • menu bar

  27. Which describes the button used to perform the Print Preview function? • Paper with magnifying glass • What is the name of the function in which words or sentences can be moved from one place in a document to another place? • cut/paste

  28. What is the shortcut for performing the Paste function? • Ctrl-v • Where is the Page Numbering function located in the Menu bar? • Insert

  29. When importing an image from the Internet, what mouse click should be performed when the arrow is over the image? • right click • Several computers connected together to a single server is called a/an: • Network

  30. Within a Web address, what tells the user the type of organization that has published the information? • ending of the address • While using a search engine, how can the user ask it to search only for the exact words typed? • quotation marks

  31. Which theory explains electrical flow? • Electron Theory • Fill in the blanks: • All ____________ consists of ______________ which contain ____________ charged______________. • Matter, atoms, negatively, electrons

  32. The electrons located on the outer orbit of the atom are called ______________. • free electrons • What term is given to material that easily allows the flow of free electrons? • conductor

  33. Electrical current travels by movement of __________________. • free electrons • Which term defines a material that does not allow electricity to easily move through it? • insulator

  34. Which law pertains to electricity? • Ohm’s Law • Which is the best conductor? • copper

  35. Voltage represents the ______________________. • potential energy of electrons • Current represents _____________________________. • the rate of flow of electrons

  36. Resistance is used to ___________________________. • restrict the flow of current • Power is measured in __________________. • Watts

  37. What is the common method of producing electricity for electric power? • magnetism • Power is __________________________. • rate of the movement of electrons

  38. What term is given to the device that uses the electrical energy for a useful purpose? • load • What device is used to control the flow of electricity? • switch

  39. What should never be removed from a 3-prong plug? • ground prong • What device is used to limit current flow? • resistor

  40. In what type of current do electrons flow in one direction? • direct current • One alternating current cycle is called a ____________________. • hertz

  41. A small power drill is identified as having 60 Hz. What is the interpretation of 60 Hz? • 60 AC cycles per second • Radio and TV signals are ____________ waves. • electromagnetic

  42. What type of circuit can produce an electric shock? • isolated • When using electrosurgery, what device delivers the current to the patient? • active electrode

  43. What type of current does electrosurgery utilize? • alternating current • When the current passes through the active electrode, the energy is converted from electrical to _______________. • thermal

  44. What term describes voltage that is high enough to compromise the sterile glove, an insulator, to cause a hole and possibly burn the individual? • dielectric breakdown • Lasers, power drills and electrosurgical units can produce a ________ of vaporized tissue. • plume

  45. Energy is defined as: • the capacity to do work • The rate at which work is done is called: • power

  46. The energy that an object has due to its position or condition is called: • potential • The force that cause an object to fall due to gravity is called: • weight

  47. ____________friction is the friction between two surfaces at rest. • static • An atom is made of neutrons, electrons, and ______________. • protons

  48. The products of an object’s mass and its velocity is called: • momentum • When all forces acting on an object cancel each other out, the object is said to be in: • equilibrium

  49. The Law of Inertia is Newton’s ____________Law of Motion. • first • Newton’s Second Law of Motion states that if you push a cart it will: • accelerate in the direction you are pushing it

  50. Electric charge is created by the accumulation of ______________ on an object. • electrons • Average speed is defined as: • distance/time