Weather & Climate Mr. Autieri-Selected Topics Intro to Weather Clip
Enduring Questions: 1) What cycle is the basis of our weather? 2) What causes precipitation to occur? 3) Where do storms usually occur?
What do you know?? On your post-it-note, answer the following question, and tape the selection to the board— WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WEATHER AND CLIMATE? a. Weather are long term effects, climate short term effects. b. Weather are short term effects, climate are long term effects. c. Weather and climate are the same terms.
Weather • --The study of weather is meteorology • --Someone who studies weather is called a meteorologist
Climate • Long-term behavior of atmosphere (100+ years) • Large geographic area • Very slow to change
“Sticky Bars” • The reason why we can cook our marshmallows for s’moreswithout placing the marshmallow in the fire place is due to what type of energy transfer? a. Conduction b. Convection c. Radiation
How Does the SunAffect Weather? • Radiation: energy transferred as waves The Sun and Weather
What is energy transfer? • The transfer of energy from one object to another.
How Does the Sun Affect Weather? • Conduction: energy transferred when molecules bump together The heat makes the copper atoms vibrate faster. These atoms in turn make the atoms near them vibrate faster. In this way the heat energy is gradually transferred along the rod from the hot end towards the cooler end. Good conductors of heat: Copper, gold, Aluminium Insulators (poor conductors): Wood, plastic, glass, china, cork A saucepan is made of aluminium or copper which is a good conductor of heat. The handle is made of plastic or wood which is a poor conductor
How Does the Sun Affect Weather? • Convection: transfer of heat by FLOW of material.
REFOCUS • Three types of heating: • Radiation • Convection • conduction
REVIEW • Define weather • Three types of climates • Three types of energy transference
The Water Cycle • All the water on the planet is recycled in this manner!
Parts of the Cycle • Evaporation—Water going from a liquid to a gas (gains energy from the sun) Evaporation
Parts of the Cycle • *Transpiration—evaporation of water from/out of plants. Locate this on the diagram! transpiration
Parts of the Cycle • Condensation—Water going from a gas to a liquid (cools or loses energy) • When this happens in the atmosphere, CLOUDS form.
Parts of the Cycle • Precipitation—when water falls out the atmosphere. Forms when the water droplets in clouds become too heavy to stay up. Rain Clip
Parts of the Cycle • Collection- Water collects into streams, rivers, ponds, lakes, and oceans.
The Water Cycle Water Cycle by Brainpop
Earth’s Atmsophere by Brainpop • . What is ozone? • . What layer of the atmosphere does weather occur in? • . What 2 gases compose the most of Earth’s Atmosphere?
How does the atmosphere affect weather? How does the atmosphere affect weather? • The atmosphere is a mixture of gases that surrounds the Earth • Has five different layers; each has different properties • We’ll label them in just a minute… • Air Temperature and Pressure change with altitude • Weather occurs in the layer closest to Earth (troposphere) • The atmosphere is a mixture of gases that surrounds the Earth • Has five different layers; each has different properties • We’ll label them in just a minute… • Air Temperature and Pressure change with altitude • Weather occurs in the layer closest to Earth (troposphere)
Write in the labels! Exosphere Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Ozone layer Stratosphere Troposphere
Fronts • = places where air masses meet • 4 Types: Warm, Cold, Occluded, Stationary • Each kind can bring different kinds of weather
Air Masses • = body of air with a certain temperature and moisture level • Can be warm or cold • Can contain a lot of moisture or not a lot of moisture
Cold Fronts • Cold air mass overtakes a warm air mass. • Cold air LIFTS the warm air. • Short-lived storms, heavy rain (Thunderstorms)
Warm Fronts • Warm air mass overtakes a cold air mass. • Less dense warm air RISES over the cooler air. • Precipitation over a large area. (Longer rains)
Stationary Front • Air masses move slowly or not at all. • Air moves parallel-neither mass is displaced. • Gentle wind, light rain.
Occluded Front • Fast moving cold front overtakes a warm front and lifts the warm air completely off the ground.
Long Rains Short Heavy Rains Occluded Front: Stationary Front: Drying of Air Mass Gentile Winds Light Rains
http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/guides/crclm/act/gifs/fpr2.gifhttp://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/guides/crclm/act/gifs/fpr2.gif • http://www.mesoscale.iastate.edu/agron206/animations/05_cnWfronts.html
Relative Humidity • Measure of the amount of moisture in the air compared to what the air could hold • How “full” of water the air is • Expressed as % • 100% relative humidity = saturated air Relative Humidity Test Applet http://itg1.meteor.wisc.edu/wxwise/relhum/rhac.html
Relative Humidity Controlled by temperature 1. Warm air holds more moisture than cool air (more space for water vapor between air molecules) 2. As air warms, relative humidity decreases 3. As air cools, relative humidity increases
Dew Point • =Temperature at which the air is saturated (100% relative humidity) Several events can occur when the dew point temp. is reached: 1. If dew point temp. is above freezing: a. water vapor condenses as liquid b. dew will form on surfaces c. cloud droplets will form in air
Humidity Clip Dew Point 2. If dew point temp. is below freezing: a. water vapor condenses as a solid b. frost on surfaces c. snow (or hail) in the air
Rainbows • Caused by sunshine on raindrops • White light (all colors) is refracted (bent) into colors as it enters and exits the drop • To see a rainbow you must have the sun behind you and raindrops in the air • Diagram: BrainPOP