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Mental Health and Illness

Mental Health and Illness. An Epidemiological Perspective. Mental Health-Everybody’s Business. Peter Sims Professor of Public Health medicine University of Papua New Guinea <petersims@upng.ac.pg>. Teaching and Learning Aims.

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Mental Health and Illness

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  1. Mental Health and Illness An Epidemiological Perspective

  2. Mental Health-Everybody’s Business • Peter Sims • Professor of Public Health medicine • University of Papua New Guinea • <petersims@upng.ac.pg>

  3. Teaching and Learning Aims • There is ignorance, superstition, stigma and fear around Mental Illness • Aetiology, pathogenesis diagnosis and treatment are imperfect. • There is a different paradigm and a less rigorous epidemiology

  4. Often sad,sometimes mad,occasionally bad • The medical model is • insufficient • Diagnosis is largely • clinical and experiential

  5. More of an art than a science • Treatment is pragmatic • Prevention is about the politics of health • “populations,people pressures, poverty”

  6. Mental Health is a worldwide problem

  7. Mental illness is common 6 in 10 women and 4 in 10 men in Western Europe and North America will have a significant mental illness during their lifetime Mental illness can affect any one of us Mental illness occurs in all societies and cultures

  8. We are all vulnerable

  9. A Holistic Approach BODY Arrow of Time CULTURE MIND SPIRIT

  10. Intelligence IQ = 100 IQ I.Q. = the Mental Age x 100 the Chronological age

  11. Personality • Each human being is unique • We all have different personalities • My personality reflects genetic inheritance and Environment

  12. Behaviour The Parent SUPER-EGO EGO The Adult The Child ID

  13. The Subconscious Mind The Conscious The Subconscious

  14. Affective Disorders Anxiety,depression,mania,obsessional disorders Schizophrenia Simple,Hebephrenic,Catatonic,paranoid Organic states Delirium,dementia Personality Disorder Abnormal personality,Psychopathy A Classification Substance abuse problems Drugs, alcohol Learning disorders Subnormality

  15. The Classification of Mental Illness:The NeurosesDepression, Anxiety, Mania, Obsessions and compulsions(usually the patient retains insight and orientation; they experience deep distress and may commit suicide)The PsychosesSchizophrenia, puerperal psychosis(the patient is disorientated, deluded, and lacking in insight)The DementiasProgressive deterioration with loss of recent memory and deterioration of a normal personality,They may be primary or more commonly secondary to another condition e.g. alcohol, stroke

  16. Clinical Diagnosis

  17. The Classification of Mental Illness Drug Problems Addictive drugs, (Heroin, Cocaine, Amphetamines,) alcohol and drug related illness-psychosis, delirium and dementia Personality Disorders A personality and behaviour that is damaging to the individual and/or to society and which is not tolerated by the dominant culture Mental subnormality/learning disorders: Problems around intelligence and ability to learn on the basis of teaching and experience

  18. Aetiology Inheritance-Genetics/Intra-uterine environment Schizophrenia,Huntington’s Drug Abuse Alcohol,Heroin etc Upbringing Mothering,education,parenting Neurological diseases MS,Brain tumour Trauma/head injury Biochemistry/metabolic Porphyria,Diabetes Infections-HIV,Syphilis,CJD Vascular-CVA Nutrition/PCM

  19. Treatment and Care Hospital Care Community Care

  20. Preventive NetworksChurch,Family, Home, Friends, Work

  21. The Mental Health Act Compulsory Psychiatric Treatment Criminal responsibility Power of attorney

  22. Mental Handicap/learning disability The mind of a young child in the body of an adult

  23. Canst thou not minister to a mind diseased, Pluck from the memory a rooted sorrow, Raze out the written troubles of the brain, And with some sweet oblivious antidote Cleanse the stuff’d bosom of that perilous stuff Which weighs upon the heart? Macbeth

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