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Genetic Manipulation

Genetic Manipulation

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Genetic Manipulation

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  1. Genetic Manipulation GMO Foods: Should we grow them?

  2. Prior to Class Take a look at the following • Online discussion at the PBS website • Engineering a crop simulation • Guess what’s coming for dinner?

  3. Warm Up • Questions about the websites? • Comments about what you have learned. • Vocabulary that you found difficult? • The assignment for today is to write an 8 sentence paragraph introducing the lesson, describing what you have learned and concluding with why we should or should not grow GMO foods.

  4. Should we grow GMO foods? There are valid reasons for and against both scientifically and politically

  5. Methods of Genetic Manipulation • Transformation: Bacteria • CaCl2 • Electroporation • Transfection: Eukaryotic organisms • Viruses (Animal Cell Lines) • Agrobacterium (Plant Cell Lines) • Gene Transduction: • Gene transfer into organisms • Gene of interest: • Vector:

  6. What we need to know • What is the Bt toxin? • Produced by soil dwelling bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis • Also found in caterpillars, leaf surfaces, aquatic environments, insect rich environments, flour mills and grain storage facilities. • Crystal proteins that target moths, butterflies, flies, mosquitoes, beetles, wasps, bees, ants and nematodes • Toxin released form the crystal in an alkaline environment, like that found in the digestive tracts of the above organisms • Can you guess why the Bt toxin does not affect most other animals? • The toxin perforates and paralyzes the digestive tract ands the insect starves to death • Many different variants have been discovered. • Has been used as an insecticide since the 1920s, because of specificity, and for being regarded as environmentally friendly

  7. Making your own GMO tomato • • How did you guys like the simulation? • Figure outlining the process

  8. Other uses of GM organisms • Drug production • Nearly all insulin for diabetics is produced by genetically modified bacteria • Clotting factors for hemophiliacs • Mammalian cell lines are manipulated to produce drugs and other useful proteins • Vaccines • Genetically manipulated pathogens for attenuated virus vaccines • Stem Cell Therapies • Often involve genetic manipulation of the stem cells • Basic Biological research, and drug discovery • Biofuels • Being adapted for production of Microelectronics • Designer plants: The Suntory “blue” rose and some carnations. • GMO crops: • To supplement nutrition: Golden rice • To increase shelf-life: Flavr-savr tomato • Produce insecticides: To increase yield, but also insect ridden corn is often infected with fungi that produce a carcinogenic toxin • Produce herbicides: To increase yield • GM animals: • The drug Atryn, an anticoagulant produced in goats and harvested form goats milk. • GM Humans: • Designer babies

  9. Stem cell Therapies

  10. Designer babies There are commonalities to generating GMO crops and other GM organisms

  11. Common elements of Genetic Modification • Identify and isolate gene of interest • Select the appropriate vector in needed (not needed for bacterial __________ ) • Screen for gene of interest • Expand the positively selected cells (organisms) • Produce gene product • This seems simple, but it is incredibly difficult • And we have not yet been able to genetically manipulate organisms only cells that can give rise to organisms.

  12. Dangers of Genetic modification • GMO crops • Health of humans that will ingest them (toxic, or allegies) • Dangers to environment (franken foods) • Resistance genes transferred to wild plants • GMO plants take over wild environments (breeding schemes can mitigate this) • There is always the change we wont see the danger coming • Organisms • Humans (cancer) • Genetically modified organisms released into environment (Franken mice) • Bacteria and viruses • The zombie apocalypse. • There are dangers of genetically modified organisms causing new diseases.

  13. Should we grow GMO foods? • • Form groups of 4 or 5 and discuss the pros and cons. • This will be a good exercise for the concluding sentence of your paragraph you will be turning in. • We will gather as a class for the final part of class to go over what we have learned. • Final thoughts: • Remember to turn in your 8 sentence paragraph