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DNA Manipulation

DNA Manipulation

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DNA Manipulation

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  1. DNA Manipulation • Diabetes • Genetic Engineering • Animals • Drugs • Bacterial Plasmid • Biopharming • Transgenic Organisms • Knockout Mice • Cloning

  2. DNA Manipulation What is genetic engineering? What are genetically engineered foods? What is Cloning?

  3. Diabetes Diabetes mellitus is a disease caused by the inability to properly use insulin, resulting in elevated blood glucose levels Many people require insulin injections to survive Insulin allows glucose to be transferred from the blood into cells Approximately 5% of all deaths are caused by diabetes.

  4. Diabetes and Biotechnology? How insulin is made?

  5. Due to the need, actual human insulin is now mass-produced Scientists insert the human insulin gene into bacteria, and the bacteria makes human insulin. This is genetic engineering, the intentional alteration of a genome by substituting or introducing new genetic material

  6. The human gene that codes for insulin is inserted into an E. coli plasmid (small circular pieces of DNA). The E. coli (bacteria) transcribes and translates the piece of human DNA to make the human protein insulin, which is then harvested from the bacteria and put into a container to be used. Safflowers are also used to produce human insulin.

  7. The first step in genetic recombination is to isolate, or cut out, a DNA fragment that contains the desired gene. You must also cut the circular plasmid (from the bacteria) to make it linear Scientists use restriction enzymes, which act like molecular scissors, cutting a DNA molecule at specific locations.

  8. You then insert your DNA segment into a bacterial plasmid using DNA ligase • Let the bacterial plasmid replicate and mass produce your protein • These plasmids used for transferring foreign genetic material into a cell are called vectors

  9. The successful introduction of DNA from another source is called transformation. The cell that has received the DNA is said to be transformed. The bacteria is said to contain recombinant DNA, which is a DNA strand that is created using pieces of DNA from two or more sources

  10. Biopharming Genetic engineering uses DNA technology to modify the genes of a cell or an organism. Molecular biologists can introduce new functions into an organism. Today, scientists use genetic engineering to find cures for various diseases that affect animals and plants.

  11. Perhaps most useful is the introduction of one or more genes from one organism into another. This could cause the host organism to produce a certain protein, such as insulin or clotting factors, that is useful to us. E.g. Allow us to become resistant to certain diseases, grow human organs, grow faster, etc. When such pharmaceutical products are produced on a large scale, the process is called biopharming.

  12. Genetically Engineered Animals Industry and Medical uses from genetic engineering.

  13. Transgenic Organisms: Altered DNA An organism that has been changed by scientists to contain one or more genes from another organism is known as a transgenic organism or a genetically modified organism (GMO). What is a GMO?

  14. Why Use Transgenic Plants and Animals? Cost - animal and plant based methods are usually more economical (cheaper) than operating a laboratory with controlled bacterial populations. Size - larger organisms can produce more stuff

  15. Transgenic Plants • Genetically modified (GM) canola and other field crops have been engineered to be resistant to specific herbicides. • This technology means that herbicides can be sprayed to kill weeds but the crop plant remains healthy. • Farmers spend about 40% less on herbicides for GM canola crops versus conventional canola crops, and they report up to a 10% increase in yield.

  16. How are GMOs created? 5 Myths about GMOs

  17. Knockout Mice • Knockout mice are produced by genetic engineering to have at least one gene completely turned off by a mutation. • They are used to study the purpose of each gene. • If a gene is turned off, you can more easily see what it does.

  18. Cloning Cloning is the process of making a genetically identical organism. It has been used for many years to produce plants (even growing a plant from a cutting is a type of cloning). The first cloned mammal (Dolly) was born in 1997 Since Dolly, several scientists have cloned other animals, including cows and mice.

  19. Cloning Animals

  20. Why Clone? The main reason to clone plants or animals is to mass produce organisms with desired qualities, such as prize-winning apples or a genetically engineered animal that produces more milk, beef, etc. Other reasons for cloning might include replacing human organs (no rejection or need of another person because they are yours) repopulating endangered or extinct species and building a clone army.

  21. Issues Deciding exactly where to draw the line on transgenic organisms and cloning is difficult. What is acceptable and what isn’t? Do the ends justify the means? Careers in Genetic Engineering