BASIC CONCEPTS OF COMPUTING Module 2.1
contents • What is a computer? • An expanded model of a computer • The role of software • Types of computers • ICT systems • Glossary
What is a computer? • Main components or parts of a computer
What is a computer? • The basic model of a computer • IPO model
What is a computer? • A definition of a computer • A computer is a multi‑purpose electronic toolthat can receive data (input),can process the data, can produce results and can output them.
Data Information • raw, unprocessed facts. CAT123NW • is the result of the processing of data and should be useful and meaningful. • registration number of a car from the North West province. CAT123NW What is a computer?
An expanded model of a computer executes the instructions, processes the data and manages and controls all the other parts of the computer get feedback from the computer get data into computer allow computers to communicate with each other keep instructions and data that it is not currently working on
An expanded model of a computer • Note the following: • Programs have to be ‘loaded’ before they can be used. • Data must also be in memory if the computer is to work with it. • The contents of memory only become ‘permanent’ when you ‘Save’ them.
The role of software • Software categories according to function
The role of software • Software categories according to distribution model
Types of computers • Size and processing power Processing power Physical size Portable
Types of computers • Servers -used in network environments to help ‘run’ a network of linked computers
Types of computers • Consumer Tablets & Tablet PCs • These are small portable devices • They are designed to be controlled through touch screen interfaces • Consumer tablets usually have WiFi, Bluetooth and 3G communication built in
Types of computers • Uses
Types of computers • Advantages and disadvantages of using computers quickly become outdated only as good as the way that they are used and the data that is fed to them good at repetitive tasks fast and accurate limited number of physical applications multi-purpose • can not think or solve problems • do not get tired or complain or demand increases in pay • can be very expensive need specially developed software faster communication excellent at keeping records need trained and skilled programmers and operators various methods to process and analyse data
ICT systems • The ability to analyse and interpret data in order to arrive at valid conclusions and to form accurate predictions (information) can spell the difference between success and failure.
ICT systems Information Communication Technology The process of transferring data/ information from one place to another Manipulated or processed data
ICT systems • Data storage by businesses • Data warehousing: • securely store, manage and retrieve large amounts of data. • Data mining: • process and analyse data looking for valuable information that you did not even know was there.
ICT systems • Examples of ICT systems in everyday life • Supermarket chain • Modern POS systems use barcodes and scanning • Scanning is also more accurate • Items scanned removed from a computerised database of what is in stock – enabling you to better manage your inventory. • Data sent to the head office - stock ordering and management decisions. • An ICT system enables them to • Order only the right amount of stock when needed • See which items are not selling well • track sales
ICT systems • Examples of ICT systems in everyday life • Cellphone company • contracts • adequate supplies & stock of cellphones • generating finance for expansion and maintenance • tracking of call durations, SMSs, data transfers, free talk time, carry-over of free minutes/seconds, and expiry of the same • service and repairs of cellphones and other infrastructure • monitoring the network status • maintaining staff records • An ICT system enables them to • List how many calls you have made, to which numbers and how long each call was • Total the number of minutes used and bill you for them • Total the amount of data you have transferred (usually in megabytes) and then bill you for that.