What is Geography? AP Human Geography
Geography is… • The scientific study of the location of people and activities across the Earth, and the reasons for their distribution.
History vs. Geography • Historians organize material by time • Something that happens at one point in time can impact something that happens at a later time. • Geographers organize material by place • Something that happens in one place can impact another place.
Geographers answer this question… • Why is whatwhere? • Huh?
What is what? • What can be anything…. • People (racial, ethnic groups) • Places (cities, fast food restaurants) • Objects (tall buildings) • Natural phenomena (hurricanes, volcanoes) • Beliefs (religion, political) • Systems/ institutions
What is where? • Where is any area or point on the Earth’s surface, large or small. • Africa • Southwest Asia • Canada • Paris • Southside of Chicago • 95th and Michigan • 9652 S. Michigan Ave. • Harlan Room 207 : )
Why + What + Where • Why are tall buildings (what) located in downtown Chicago (where)?
Why + What + Where • Why do people in certain parts of Canada (where) speak French (what)?
Why + What + Where • Why are fast food restaurants (what) more common that grocery stores on the Westside of Chicago (where)?
Why + What + Where • Why are most major cities (what) located near bodies of water (where)?
Why + What + Where • Why are corporations and financial institutions (what) located in big cities (where)?
This week… • We will begin to examine how human geographers think about the world. • Key Issue: How do geographers describe where things are?
Branches of Geography Physical Human Studies the interaction between people and the natural features of the Earth. Farming, cities, culture, migration patterns, habitat, political boundaries. • Studies the physical/ natural features of the Earth. • Mountains, rivers, tectonic plates, oceans, volcanoes, natural resources.
5 Themes of Geography • Used to help us understand the links between people and the Earth. • M ovement • R egion • L ocation • I nteraction • P lace • Remember MR. LIP!
Movement • Examines the movement of people, goods, and ideas. • Movements often occur together. • How did Christianity end up in America? • Why do Mexicans speak Spanish? • Why is Polish sausage popular in Chicago?
Region • An area with similar and unifying characteristics. • Similarities may be physical (ie Rocky mts.) • Similarities may be cultural, political, or economic (ie the Muslim world) • What are some regional characteristics of the Midwest U.S.?
Location • The position of a place on the Earth’s surface. • Can be relative (Harlan is in Chicago) or exact (Harlan is located at 9652 S. Michigan Ave.) • How else could you describe the relative location of Harlan?
Interaction • Studies the relationship between people and their environment. • How to people use the Earth’s resources to satisfy their needs? • Water for irrigation, land for farming, trees to build houses, oil as fuel. • What are potential negative outcomes to human interaction with the Earth?
Place • The physical and human characteristics of a location. • Describe Chicago…
Parts of a Map • Compass Rose- shows direction on a map. • Scale- shows what a distance on a map is actually equal to on Earth. • Key- tells us what the map symbols mean.
Lines of Latitude • Lines of latitude run EAST-WEST across a map. • They measure distance NORTH or SOUTH of the Equator, which is 0 degrees latitude.
Lines of Longitude • Lines of Longitude run from the NORTH pole to the SOUTH pole. • They measure distance EAST or WEST of the Prime Meridian, which is 0 degrees longitude.
Different Types of Maps • Physical Maps • Show features such as mountains, plains, rivers and oceans. • Focus is on natural features…not cities, countries, and borders.
Different Types of Maps • Political Maps • The focus is on cities, countries, states, and borders.
Different Types of Maps Thematic Maps • These maps focus on themes such as population density or weather, for example.
Different Types of Maps • Historical Maps • Shows how a certain area has changed over time. • Shows what a certain area used to look like.
Different Types of Maps • The Globe • A globe is the most accurate representation of the Earth because it is round like the Earth. • A globe shows us the truest sizes of land and bodies of water.