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Chapter 10. Egypt. Ancient Egypt | Travel Wish." Travel Wish | Travel Locations | Travel Destinations | Travel Attractions . Web. 25 Apr. 2011. <http://travellingwish.com/2008/11/23/ancient-egypt/>. Objective. Discuss the ancient Egyptians’ achievements. Pharaoh – ruler of ancient Egypt
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Chapter 10 Egypt Ancient Egypt | Travel Wish." Travel Wish | Travel Locations | Travel Destinations | Travel Attractions. Web. 25 Apr. 2011. <http://travellingwish.com/2008/11/23/ancient-egypt/>.
Objective • Discuss the ancient Egyptians’ achievements.
Pharaoh – ruler of ancient Egypt • Hieroglyphics – form of writing that uses signs and symbols • Papyrus – Egyptian paper This is the bust of the famous Egyptian Queen Nefertiti. Boehm, Richard G. The World and Its People. New York: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, 2005. Print.
Hieroglyphics Hieroglyphics were a complicated form of picture writing. The way to read it was lost and it was a mystery for perhaps thousands of years.
Hieroglyphics Later hieroglyphics became more symbolic and was known as demotic.
Pharaoh Tutankhamen is only famous because his grave was found in the 20th century.
Pharaoh Hound and Pharaoh Ant As you can see this hound resembles the Anubis shown in ancient pictures. I have no clue why the ant is called the Pharaoh ant. But I did discover a female can lay 400 eggs in her lifetime!
Think you are having a bad day? • It could be worse!
The Nile, the world’s longest river, flows north 4,160 miles from the mountains of East Africa to the Mediterranean Sea. The last 600 miles are in Egypt.
Egypt was called the “gift of the Nile because Egyptians depended on the Nile for their livelihood.
In Egypt’s earliest history two kingdoms formed along the Nile River. About 3,100 B.C. a king of Upper Egypt called Narmer moved north and conquered Lower Egypt, uniting the two kingdoms. This is supposedly Narmer.
The pharaoh owned all of the land in Egypt, and he gave gifts of land to rich Egyptians and priests. He had dams and irrigation canals built and repaired. He chose government officials to gather taxes and carry out his orders. He also commanded the armies.
M u m m i f i c a t i o n Egyptians embalmed the dead because they believed in an afterlife, but that the soul could not exist without the body.
This was a process in which priests first removed certain organs from the body. Then they slowly dried the body to prevent if from decaying.
There were four canopic jars displays in the tombs, each jar contained different human parts: liver, lungs, intestines and the stomach.
Next the embalmed body was wrapped in long strips of linen. The wrapped body was known as a mummy. The mummies of the poor were buried in caves and those of the rich in coffins and sometimes in elaborate tombs.
Mummies The ancient Egyptians didn’t have to go to all that trouble to mummify a body. This is Ginger, a mummy at the British museum that was found in the sands of Egypt. No mummification ritual was done. Its called Ginger because of the color of the hair.
The pyramids were tombs. Valley of the Kings. There are over 80 smaller pyramids here. Pyramids at Giza
The Great Sphinx is a statue with the body of a lion and a human head. It is located at Giza. The Great Sphinx face is that of King Khafre of the 4th Dynasty .(maybe…maybe not!!)
The damage done to the face of the Sphinx was done in 1380 by Arab sheiks and later by soldiers from Napoleon's army who used it for target practice. Erosion has also damaged it.
Hatsheptsut was the first female pharaoh. She expanded trade. • Born in the 15th century BC, Hatshepsut, daughter of Tuthmose I and Aahmes, both of royal lineage, was the favorite of their three children. When her two brothers died, she was in the unique position to gain the throne upon the death of her father. All the pharaohs look much the same because of the stylized art used by the Egyptians for centuries.
To have a female pharaoh was unprecedented. When Thutmosis I passed away, his son by a commoner, Thutmosis II, technically ascended the throne. For the few years of his reign, however, Hatshepsut seems to have held the reins.
From markings on his mummy, archaeologists believe ThutmosisII had a skin disease, and he died after ruling only three or four years.
Hatsheptsut Hatshepsut ruled for 20 years. She had a magnificent three-tiered temple built for herself. "Ancient Egypt | Travel Wish." Travel Wish | Travel Locations | Travel Destinations | Travel Attractions. Web. 25 Apr. 2011. <http://travellingwish.com/2008/11/23/ancient-egypt/>.
She appeared in public as a man, with a fake beard. She didn’t remarry, but her architect was her “special” friend and he was buried in a secret chamber underneath her own burial chamber.
After her death, her successor, Thutmose III did all he could to erase her memory from Egypt; he had her monuments destroyed and thrown in a pit and her name scratched off all monuments and documents.
Hatsheptsut’s temple was vandalized and buried in the sand for centuries before being found and excavated.
The Egyptians used a number system based on ten. They also used fractions and whole numbers. They developed geometry to survey, or measure land.
The Rosetta stone was a very old stone tabled found by French soldiers. It had the same message in three languages. Since scientists could read the first two languages it enabled them to translate the hieroglyphics.
Rosetta Stone at British Museum I have no idea who this man is….I just found this picture that helped show the size of the Rosetta Stone.
Mummification • The earliest ancient Egyptians buried their dead in small pits in the desert. The heat and dryness of the sand dehydrated the bodies quickly, creating lifelike and natural 'mummies'.
Mummification Later, the ancient Egyptians began burying their dead in coffins to protect them from wild animals in the desert. However, they realized that bodies placed in coffins decayed when they were not exposed to the hot, dry sand of the desert.
Mummification • First, the body is taken to the tent known as 'ibu' or the 'place of purification'. There the embalmers wash his body with good-smelling palm wine and rinse it with water from the Nile.
Mummification • One of the embalmer's men makes a cut in the left side of the body and removes many of the internal organs. It is important to remove these because they are the first part of the body to decompose.
Mummification • The liver, lungs, stomach and intestines are washed and packed in natron (a natural salt) which will dry them out. The heart is not taken out of the body because it is the center of intelligence and feeling and the man will need it in the afterlife
Mummification • A long hook is used to smash the brain and pull it out through the nose.
Mummification • The body is now covered and stuffed with natron which will dry it out. All of the fluids, and rags from the embalming process will be saved and buried along with the body.
Mummification After forty days the body is washed again with water from the Nile. Then it is covered with oils to help the skin stay elastic.
Mummification The body is stuffed with dry materials such as sawdust, leaves and linen so that it looks lifelike. Finally the body is covered again with good-smelling oils. It is now ready to be wrapped in linen.Organs are placed in canopic jars.
Wrapping the mummy First the head and neck are wrapped with strips of fine linen. Then the fingers and the toes are individually wrapped. The arms and legs are wrapped separately. Between the layers of wrapping, the embalmers place amulets to protect the body in its journey through the underworld.
Wrapping the mummy • The arms and legs are tied together. A papyrus scroll with spells from the Book of the Dead is placed between the wrapped hands. • More linen strips are wrapped around the body. At every layer, the bandages are painted with liquid resin that helps to glue the bandages together.
Final Steps • A cloth is wrapped around the body and a picture of the god Osiris is painted on its surface • Finally, a large cloth is wrapped around the entire mummy. • A board of painted wood is placed on top of the mummy before the mummy is lowered into its coffin. The first coffin is then put inside a second coffin.
Daily Life - Food • Bread and beer were the main foods for many people in Egypt. • Bread was made from a grain called emmer-wheat. • As the wheat was ground into a flour, small bits of stone and sand often got mixed in and made the bread hard to chew.
Daily Life - Food • The teeth of many skeletons that remain from the time are worn down from eating the bread. • Beer was made from emmer-barley and was much thicker and more nutritious than the beer that is made now and was considered more of a food than a drink. • http://www.clevelandart.org/kids/egypt/roseff.html#pyramids
Bread and Beer Making Bread- and beer-makingModel from the tomb of Mentuhotep II