Rivalry Between Nations • Industrialization created rivalries among European countries. • Great Britain, France, Germany, and other European countries needed natural resources for their factories. • They also needed markets were they could sell their products. • Imperialism: European countries claimed land in Africa and Asia to set up colonies. • European countries also built up large armies and navies to protect their empires. • Countries formed alliances with one another and agreed to support one another in times of war.
World War IWhy did it start? • nationalism, colonialism, and alliances • June 28, 1914, Gavrilo Princip assassinates Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife Sophie of Austria-Hungary in Sarajevo. Princip had ties to a Serbian terrorist group.
World War IWho fought whom? • July 23rd: Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia because of assassination and Germany agrees to support Austria-Hungary. • August 3-4: Germany declares war on Russia, France, and Belgium. • August 4: Great Britain declares war on Germany. • August 6: Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia. • August 10:France declares war on Austria-Hungary. • August 12: Great Britain declares war on Austria-Hungary. • January 31,1917: Germans resume unrestricted U-boat attacks • April 6,1917: USA declares war on Germany in retaliation for the sinking of the Lusitania cruise ship on May 7, 1915 and the resumption of unrestricted warfare.
Serbia Great Britain France Russia Italy Japan United States Belgium Montenegro Romania Portugal China Liberia Greece Siam San Marino Panama Cuba Brazil Guatemala Haiti Honduras Costa Rica Nicaragua World War IThe Allied Powers
World War IThe Central Powers • Austria-Hungary • Germany • Bulgaria • Ottoman Empire (Turkey)
World War IWeaponry • The methods of the Industrial Revolution were used to mass-produce deadly weapons. • airplane • submarine • tank • machine gun • mustard Gas
When did the U.S. enter the war? • United States President Woodrow Wilson declared a U.S. policy of absolute neutrality, an official stance that would last until 1917 when Germany's policy of unrestricted submarine warfare - which seriously threatened America's commercial shipping forced the U.S. to finally enter the war on April 6, 1917.
The War on the Home Front • African-Americans fought in the war but were still discriminated against. • Women took over many factory jobs for the first time.
World War IWhere did they fight? • In Europe, trench warfare developed, especially along the western front between France and Germany. • in northern Africa • in the skies above Europe - “dog fights” between planes • in the Atlantic, with Germany’s unrestricted warfare and dangerous U-boats
World War IHow did it end? • American troops arrived in Europe and Africa. • Paris Peace Conference • Treaty of Versailles • The Big Four • Woodrow Wilson, American President • David Lloyd George, British Prime Minister • Georges Clemenceau, French Premier • Vittorio Orlando, Italian Premier
World War IThe Results • Russian Revolution – 1917 revolution begun by Vladimir Lenin and led to a communist government in Russia • Germany was blamed for starting the war and was asked to pay for the damage leaving the country in financial ruins. • The Austrian-Hungarian empire was dismantled. • The Ottoman Empire was destroyed. • World War II