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World War I – 1914-1918

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World War I – 1914-1918
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  1. World War I – 1914-1918 • Also known as the Great War or The War to End All Wars • Causes • 1. Nationalism • 2. Imperialism • 3. Militarism • 4. Entangling Alliances – balance of power

  2. Triple Alliance/Central Powers Germany Austria-Hungary Italy – switches sides in 1915 Ottoman Empire (Turkey) joins in 1914 Bulgaria joins in 1915 Triple Entente/Allied Powers England France Russia Italy – in 1915 Japan joins in 1914 United States joins in 1917 Opposing Sides

  3. Event that started the War • June 28, 1914 – Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary and his wife are assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia by Serbian Nationalists – Pan-Slavic movement – The Black Hand • Mobilization – preparing your military for war

  4. 1914-1916 • First Modern War • New weapons – Machine guns, poison gas, airplanes, submarines, giant artillery, flamethrowers, (tanks – in 1917) • Early Battles – First Battle of the Marne - 1914 Trench Warfare – war was stagnant for this period with the battleline moving very little – stalemate No Man’s Land – area between the trenches German U-boats – tried to cut off Europe from supplies Battle of Verdun – 1916 – 1.25 million casualties • Battle of the Somme – 1916 – 1 million casualties

  5. German Maxim Machine Gun

  6. Vickers Machine Gun Lewis Machine Gun

  7. Big Bertha

  8. American Rail Gun

  9. German Artillery

  10. Spad VII

  11. Sopwith Pup Nieuport 28

  12. Baron Manfred Von Richtofen “The Red Baron”

  13. Gas Bombs Exploding Mustard Gas Victim U.S. Marines Wearing Gas Masks

  14. German Submarine (U-boat) U-14

  15. No Man’s Land

  16. Trench Warfare

  17. Trench Foot

  18. Trench system from the Air

  19. Soldiers Attacking – “Going Over the Top”

  20. Dead German Soldiers

  21. Dead Allied Soldiers

  22. Before After

  23. Allied Tanks

  24. Nicholas II George Clemenceau David Lloyd George

  25. U.S. Neutrality • Isolationism – President Woodrow Wilson • Events that caused U.S. to go to war • 1. German submarine warfare – Lusitania – Germans were attacking U.S. shipping • U.S. loaned Allies large amounts of money • 2. Sussex Pledge • 3. Zimmerman Telegram • United States declares war on Central Powers on April 6, 1917

  26. Preparing For War • Committee on Public Information – raised public support for war • Selective Service Act – drafted over 3 million men • African-Americans – 370,000 served – still segregated – fought with the French army • Women – 25,000 served – interpreters, nurses, clerks, “Hello Girls” (telephone operators) – 1 million women joined the work force in America • Liberty Bonds - $20 Billion • War Industries Board

  27. Propaganda Posters

  28. American Expeditionary Force – AEF – John J. Pershing • 1917 – Bolshevik Revolution in Russia – Communists take over, Russia surrenders • Famous battles for Americans • 1. Chateau-Thierry • 2. Belleau Wood • 3. Second Battle of the Marne – turning point of war, Germans last attack • 4. Saint-Mihiel • November 11, 1918 – Armistice (truce) ends the fighting

  29. 30 million deaths – 112,000 American • $330 billion • Fourteen Points – Woodrow Wilson’s plan • League of Nations • Self-determination – people decide their own political status • Treaty of Versailles – set stage for World War II by punishing Germany excessively • Germans had to pay reparations – payments for damages - $33 billion • Germans had to give up territory • Germans had to give up their military

  30. Woodrow Wilson

  31. John J. Pershing

  32. Wilhelm II Franz Joseph I

  33. Vladimir Lenin

  34. Adolf Hitler

  35. America in the 1920’s and 1930’s

  36. Women’s Rights • 19th Amendment is passed in August of 1920 – gave women the right to vote • Flappers – women who challenged traditional dress and behavior

  37. Red Scare • Labor unrest, strikes and violence led many people to worry about Communist/Anarchist influence in the US. • Xenophobia – fear and hatred of foreigners • Nicola Sacco/Bartolomeo Vanzetti – executed in 1927 • American Civil Liberties Union - ACLU

  38. Red Scare

  39. Great Migration • During the 1920’s, hundreds of thousands of black southerners began moving to the North to escape racial prejudice • Faced opposition from whites concerned about job losses • 25 urban race riots during the 1920’s in the North