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World War I

World War I

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World War I

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  1. World War I

  2. 1. The Beginning • By 1914 tensions in Europe had risen and many believed the continent was on the brink of war

  3. b. Four factors contributed to this problem • Militarism • Europe had undergone a massive military buildup during the period of the late 1800s into the early 1900s • European countries had colonized around the world and were now wanting to protect their own interest • Left all sides anxious • Remember the larger the population of a country the bigger army it could amass

  4. ii. Alliances • Nations entered into alliances with other nations • Two major alliances • Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy • The Triple Entente: France, Russia and Great Britain

  5. iii. Imperialism • Quest to build empires fuelled ill will among the nations • Germany, France, Russia and Great Britain all saw themselves as imperial nations • Did not think they could stand by while a rival gained power

  6. iv. Nationalism • Nationalism: Strong devotion to one’s national group or culture • Movement led to formation of new countries like Germany and Italy and struggles for power • Strongest national tensions were in the Balkans in a nation called Serbia

  7. 4. Pan-Slavic Nationalism • Pan-Slavism: the idea of a unified Slavic race under the protection of Russia • This would give Russia access to the much wanted warm water seaports • Russians supported liberation movements of the Slavic peoples such as Serbians, Croats, Slovaks, and Poles, etc….

  8. 2. Austria-Hungary and Serbia • 1908 • Austria-Hungary took the Slavic territories of Bosnia-Herzegovina from the weak Ottoman Empire • Serbia appealed to Russia for help, but Russia was just coming off a defeat by Japan and was unable to help

  9. b. The Balkan Wars • Began in 1912 and was between the Balkan countries and the Ottoman Empire • Serbia wanted Albania in exchange for fighting on the Russian side • They did not get it

  10. iii. 1913, Albania was made independent and off limits to Serbia • Russia was not able to influence or help out Serbia • Serbians were angry • Russia was left humiliated iv. Russia had no power in Europe • Russians vow never to be again humiliated • Were ready for a war in order to save their honor

  11. 3. War Breaks Out • June 28, 1914 • Archduke Franz Ferdinand visits Sarajevo • Was the next in line for the Austrian-Hungarian throne • While driving through the city with his wife Sophie, they are assassinated by GavriloPrincip • Was a member of a Serbian national group called the Black Hand

  12. Franz Ferdinand and Sophie GavriloPrincip

  13. iii. Austria-Hungary blamed Serbia and made a list of demands for Serbia to agree to • Terms were humiliating to Serbia and she refused to agree to them iv. Austria declared war on July 28, 1914

  14. b. Mobilization • Russia will side with Serbia and began to prepare for war • Russia’s mobilization was seen as a threat and Germany (all of Austria-Hungary) mobilizes against Russia • Germany will declare war on Russia and then France

  15. c. Schlieffen Plan • Germany had developed a plan to help prevent fighting a war on two fronts • Plan was called Schieffen Plan • Called for Germany to quickly defeat France in the west and then head east to fight Russia

  16. iii. Quickest way to France was through Belgium • Belgium was neutral country • Germany invades and causes Great Britain to enter the war iv. Great Britain joins in on France’s and Russia’s side

  17. d. Two Powers • Central Powers: Germany and Austria-Hungary • Allied Powers: Great Britain, France, Russia and Serbia

  18. 4. Stalemate • 1914 • By the end of 1914 two trench systems stretched hundreds of miles across Europe • The Western Front was the dead lock region in western Europe

  19. The War Effort

  20. 1. Trench Warfare • Life in the Trench • Soldiers lived there • Wet and dirty • Bullets, bombs and grenades would go off all around you • Many times dead bodies stayed where they were at • Rats and lice were present

  21. vi. “Over the Tops” • Soldiers were sent over the trench and ran towards the enemy lines through no man’s land • Many were gunned down before they ever made it to the other side

  22. b. Trench warfare made the development of new technology necessary

  23. 2. New Warfare • Poison Gas • Different kinds of gas could do different things i.e.: choke, blind or burn victims • This led to the development of gas masks

  24. b. Rapid fire machine guns

  25. c. Tanks • Armored vehicles • Pioneered by the British

  26. d. Aircraft • First used to observe enemy positions • Eventually guns and bombs were attached e. Even with all of this technology neither side was able to gain an adventure

  27. 3. The Home Front • Government Action • War was also being waged at home • Governments took action • Factories produced military equipment • Citizens would conserve food • Governments tried to control public opinion • Governments would censor newspaper reports

  28. 4. Used propaganda • Information used to influence opinion • Encouraged support of the war • Used posters, pamphlets, and articles

  29. b. Women and the War Effort • With men away fighting the war on the various fronts, women at home filled positions that were once occupied by men • Jobs • Work in factories • Help send food and weapons • Served as nurses • All of these things would help transform the public view of what women could do

  30. 4. Western Front Battles • Battle of Verdun • Verdun was a French fortress • Purpose of the battle was to kill and injure as many French soldiers as possible • Lasted from February to December 1914 • Around 400,000 French casualties and just as many Germans • Ended in a stalemate