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ICMP: Internet Control Message Protocol

ICMP: Internet Control Message Protocol

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ICMP: Internet Control Message Protocol

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  1. used by hosts, routers, gateways to communication network-level information error reporting: unreachable host, network, port, protocol echo request/reply (used by ping) network-layer “above” IP: ICMP msgs carried in IP datagrams ICMP message: type, code plus first 8 bytes of IP datagram causing error ICMP: Internet Control Message Protocol TypeCodedescription 0 0 echo reply (ping) 3 0 dest. network unreachable 3 1 dest host unreachable 3 2 dest protocol unreachable 3 3 dest port unreachable 3 6 dest network unknown 3 7 dest host unknown 4 0 source quench (congestion control - not used) 8 0 echo request (ping) 9 0 route advertisement 10 0 router discovery 11 0 TTL expired 12 0 bad IP header Lecture 14

  2. Routing in the Internet • The Global Internet consists of Autonomous Systems (AS) interconnected with each other: Stub AS: small corporation Multihomed AS: large corporation (no transit) Transit AS: provider • Two level routing: Intra-AS: administrator is responsible for choice RIP: Routing Information Protocol - distance vector OSPF: Open Shortest Path First - link-state EIGRP: Enhanced Internal Gateway Routing Protocol (Cisco proprietary successor for RIP) Inter-AS: unique standard : BGP Lecture 14

  3. Internet AS Hierarchy Lecture 14

  4. RIP ( Routing Info Protocol) • Distance vector type scheme • Included in BSD-UNIX Distribution in 1982 • Distance metric: # of hops (max = 15 hops) • Distance vector: exchanged every 30 sec via a Response Message (also called Advertisement) • Each Advertisement contains up to 25 destination nets Lecture 14

  5. RIP (from perspective of router D) Letters are routers and numbers on links are network addresses • dest net next router number of hops to destination • 1 A 2 • 20 B 2 • 30 B 7 • 10 -- 1 • …. …. .... Lecture 14

  6. RIP: Link Failure and Recovery • If no advertisement heard after 180 sec, neighbor/link dead • Routes via the neighbor are invalidated; new advertisements sent to neighbors • Neighbors in turn send out new advertisements if their tables changed • Link failure info quickly propagates to entire net • Poison reverse used to prevent ping-pong loops (infinite distance = 16 hops) • Routers can request info about neighbor’s cost • Advertisements are sent via UDP using port #520 as standard IP datagram Lecture 14

  7. RIP Tableprocessing • RIP routing tables managed by an application process called routed (daemon) • routed is pronounced route-d • The application process is a part of the Unix OS and uses socket programming as we know it • Each routed exchanges information with other routed processes running on other machines • advertisements encapsulated in UDP packets (no reliable delivery required; advertisements are periodically repeated) Lecture 14

  8. RIP Tableprocessing Lecture 14

  9. RIP Table example Destination Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------- -------------------- ----- ----- ------ --------- UH 0 26492 lo0 192.168.2. U 2 13 fa0 193.55.114. U 3 58503 le0 192.168.3. U 2 25 qaa0 U 3 0 le0 default UG 0 143454 Three attached class C networks (LANs) Router only knows routes to attached LANs Default router used to “go up” Route multicast address: Loopback interface (for debugging) Lecture 14

  10. OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) • “open”: publicly available • uses the Link State algorithm (ie, LS packet dissemination; topology map at each node; route computation using Dijkstra’s alg) • OSPF advertisement carries one entry per neighbor router • advertisements disseminated to ENTIRE Autonomous System (via flooding) Lecture 14

  11. Hierarchical OSPF in large domains; thousands of routers OSPF “advanced” features (not in RIP) Lecture 14

  12. Hierarchical OSPF • Two level hierarchy: local area and backbone • Link state advertisements do not leave respective areas • Nodes in each area have detailed area topology; they only know direction (shortest path) to networks in other areas • Area Border routers “summarize” distances to networks in the area and advertise them to other Area Border routers • Backbone routers run an OSPF routing alg limited to the backbone Lecture 14

  13. Inter-AS routing Lecture 14

  14. Why different Intra- and Inter-AS routing ? • Scale: Inter provides an extra level of routing table size and routing update traffic reduction above the Intra layer • Policy: Inter is concerned with policies (which provider we must select/avoid, etc). Intra is contained in a single organization, so, no policy decisions necessary • Performance: Intra is focused on performance metrics; needs to keep costs low. In Inter it is difficult to propagate performance metrics efficiently (latency, privacy etc). Besides, policy related information is more meaningful. We need BOTH! Lecture 14

  15. Inter-AS routing (cont) • BGP (Border Gateway Protocol): the de facto standard • Path Vector protocol: an extension of Distance Vector • Each Border Gateway broadcasts to neighbors (peers) the entire path (ie, sequence of ASes) to destination (no cost info is sent) • For example, Gwy X may store the following path to destination Z:Path (X,Z) = 102,111,120,…,2012 Path (X,Z) = 102,111,120,…,2012 • Loop Avoidance • Policy Routing Lecture 14

  16. Inter-AS routing (cont) • Peers exchange BGP messages using TCP (peers are immediate neighbor ASs) • OPEN msg opens TCP connection to peer • UPDATE msg advertises new path (or withdraws old) • KEEPALIVE msg keeps connection alive in absence of UPDATES; it also serves as ACK to an OPEN request • NOTIFICATION msg reports errors in previous msg; also used to close a connection Lecture 14

  17. Address Management • As Internet grows, werun out of addresses • Solution (a): subnetting. Eg, Class B Host field (16bits) is subdivided into <subnet;host> fields • Solution (b): CIDR (Classless Inter Domain Routing): assign block of contiguous Class C addresses to the same organization; these addresses all share a common prefix Lecture 14

  18. Router Architecture Overview • Router main functions: routing algorithms and protocols processing, switching datagrams from an incoming link to an outgoing link Router Components Lecture 14

  19. Input and Output Port Processing • Line Termination corresponds to physical layer • Data link processing corresponds to link layer • Usually, copy of routing table is stored at each input port - avoids using one central CPU • Packet dropping occurs at input and output queues Lecture 14

  20. The switching fabric • Switching via memory, a) by shared memory with processors at ports or b) via CPU & ports as IO devices • Switching via bus, only one packet at time (one bus - (but there are gigabit buses) • Switching via interconnection network - (crossbar) 2N buses for N output and N input ports Lecture 14

  21. Queuing At Input and Output Ports • Queues build up whenever there is a rate mismatch or blocking. Consider the following scenarios: • Fabric speed is faster than all input ports combined; more datagrams are destined to an output port than other output ports; queuing occurs at output port • Fabric bandwidth is not as fast as all input ports combined; queuing may occur at input queues; • HOL blocking: fabric can deliver datagrams from input ports in parallel, except if datagrams are destined to same output port; in this case datagrams are queued at input queues; there may be queued datagrams that are held behind HOL conflict, even when their output port is available Lecture 14