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Transportation & Sustainability: Options & Opportunity

Transportation & Sustainability: Options & Opportunity

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Transportation & Sustainability: Options & Opportunity

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  1. Transportation & Sustainability:Options & Opportunity Anne Tazewell NC Solar Center / NC State University 919-513-7831
  2. Presentation Outline The Clean Fuel Advanced Technology Project The Importance of Clean Transportation Green Driving / Fleet Practices Alternative Fuels Overview
  3. Reducing transportation related emissions through: Education, Outreach, Recognition Expansion of alternative fuel infrastructure & vehicles Statewide partnership Sponsored by NCDOT with federal CMAQ funding

    Clean Fuel Advanced Technology 2013-2015

  4. Section 1 NC Air Quality & Health
  5. North Carolina Air Quality 24 counties do not meet national air quality standards for ozone.
  6. 42% of the nation lives where pollution levels are dangerous

    Health Impacts of Vehicle Emissions

  7. Health Impacts of Vehicle Emissions

  8. CO2 and Climate Change

    Indicates anomalies by comparing recorded annual temp. values against a long-term avg. Greenhouse Effect: increased levels of CO2 in the atmosphere trap solar radiation….the earth warms...
  9. Section 2 National Trends in Fuel and Vehicles
  10. Demand Growing and industrializing world

    Petroleum Economics

    Supply Exists, but harder to get Many nations historically unfriendly to US Average US household spent $3,000 annually on gasoline in 2010 Economics & Statistic Administration U.S. Dept of Commerce
  11. Emission Standards: Cleaner Vehicles
  12. Fuel economy standard for passenger vehicles from MY1978-2025
  13. Heavy Duty Emissions Late 2006 - All diesel is Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel 2007-2010 “Clean” Engine phase-in, heavy duty trucks Lowered NOx 96% & PM 90% compared to 1994 Increased cost of conventional vehicles
  14. Alternative Fuel Requirements

    1992 Federal Energy Policy Act 2004-2005 North Carolina budget provision 19.5 2009 Executive Order 13514 2007 U.S. Energy Independence & Security Act (EISA) Renewable Fuels Standard Biofuel provisions
  15. Section 3 NC Economic Development
  16. Clean Transportation & NC Economy
  17. Section 4 Clean Transportation Solutions - Overview
  18. Transportation Solutions There is no silver bullet! Efficiency VMT Reduction Programs Alternative fuels Advanced technology vehicles
  19. Efficiency

    Get more out of what you use: Eco Driving Proper vehicle maintenance (proper tune-ups, filter changes, engine lubes, tire inflation) Lower speeds and slower accelerations Using overdrive gears and cruise control Removing excess weight “Right size” vehicle for the job and when purchasing get most fuel-efficient/least emissions vehicle Eliminate unnecessary idling For every 5 mph over 60, your fuel efficiency decreases by 7%
  20. VMT Reduction Programs

    Reduce Use: Combine or avoid trips through phone and video conferencing Carpool Adjust routes Use public transit, walk, bike
  21. Section 5 Green Fleets
  22. Green Fleet Program - Why Have One? Institutionalize support for petroleum and/or emissions reduction to get: Cycle of Improvement Less vulnerability to staff turn-over, opposition Streamlined ‘green’ decision-making Positive PR
  23. How do we establish a “green fleet” policy?

    Option 1: (top-down) Pass a State/County/City wide ordinance, or enact an executive order, that codifies the “green fleet” process and delegates specific responsibilities within local government to take action. Option 2: (bottom-up) Establish internal departmental or agency fleet policies, which are clear and carry sufficient weight with departmental or agency heads. Option 3: (hybrid) Pass a resolution that serves as enabling legislation for establishing a “green fleet” policy, and then work out the details of the policy at the departmental or agency level.
  24. How To Green Your Fleet Fleet Assessments Fleet Inventory Vehicle Utilization Review Policies and Vehicle Management System Review Fleet Improvement Planning Mechanism to share/celebrate successes Internally and Externally!
  25. Fleet Improvement Planning Successful ‘fleet team’ includes: Fleet manager Maintenance manager Vehicle Technicians Purchasing director Facility planner Administrative leader Vehicle users
  26. Fleet Improvement Planning Goals, objectives Review fleet assessment results, including policies/procedures Develop options list to reduce fuel use and fleet-based emissions Research products and services (including case studies, pilot project results) Explore existing incentives and grants Select best fit options
  27. Sample Green Fleet Program Components Formal Fleet Assessment program Green vehicle purchase policies/procedures Fuel tracking and Eco-driving program Idle-Reduction Policy Note: NC Solar Center & partners are launching a NC Green Fleet Program in 2014 to help account for & track individual organization & statewide progress
  28. Section 6 Clean Transportation Technologies
  29. Idle Reduction TechnologiesLight Duty and Heavy-Duty Vehicles
  30. Idle Reduction TechnologiesExtended Deep Cycle Power Sources Operate all on board electrical equipment without having to invest in an Auxiliary Power Unit The Odyssey Battery (mfg. by EnerSys, Reading, Pa) & is deep cycle AGM/VRLA battery example Energy Xtreme “Independence Package” another option- potential for vehicles electronics to run 4-6 hours and recharge in 2 hours. Excellent choice for first responders
  31. Idle Reduction Technologies Truck Stop Electrification Examples Provides idle reduction opportunity without carrying around the extra weight of an APU Shorepower’s “power pedestal” metered power source Company also provides an on-board cab kit that can include HVAC, cooking center, entertainment, etc. EnviroDock provides heating and cooling, plus electricity to power on-board appliances through E-Dock Stationary and E-Doc portable systems.
  32. Idle Reduction Policies Implement Your Own Idle Reduction Program Recognize drivers who successfully reduce idling Award drivers a certificate of recognition (see U.S. EPA Idle-Reduction Kit) Rewards for drivers who successfully reduce idling (gift certificates or other items from local businesses, Clean Air non-profit organizations, or Parent/Teacher organizations) Calculate fuel and dollar savings from idling-reduction with EPA calculator Urge community leaders to issue a local Idle-Reduction Proclamation Consider using the outreach materials available in the EPA Idle-Reduction Kit to share your success with other fleet managers, the media and the general public:
  33. Telematics Wide array of on-board systems available to track fuel use and other vehicle & driver parameters Improved fleet fuel efficiency means reduced fuel costs, lower emissions
  34. Combine electric motor, battery storage, regenerative braking with gasoline engine Increasingly available on more and more vehicle models (66 in 2014)

    Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Source: Improved efficiency reduces fuel costs & emissions
  35. A two wheeled, self-balancing personal transportation devise that can reach 12 mph In use by over 300 police and security forces including Duke University, Charlotte, Monroe & Wilmington NC dealers: Charlotte Energy Solutions 337 Baldwin AveCharlotte, NC 28204704-333-4358 Triangle Glides 327 Blake Street Raleigh NC 27601 Phone: 919-828-1988

    The Segway

    SEGWAY of the Triad 176 YWCA Way (Downtown @ Gateway)Winston-Salem, NC 27127Phone: 336-722-7777
  36. NEVs can fulfill many tasks especially in urban centers, campus environments, etc. Range is typically 30 to 50 miles/charge. Speed limited by federal law to 25 mph, can be driven on streets zoned up to 35 MPH.

    Neighborhood Electrics (NEVs)

    No special recharging infrastructure required. Can be plugged into 110 outlet. May have A/C or D/C drive systems. Most have lead/acid batteries, typically on a 72v platform.
  37. Plug In Hybrids (PHEV) extend the electric performance of hybrids utilize a lithium-ion battery pack & electric motor for 10- 40 mile electric range. can be plugged into a 120 or 240 VAC outlet to receive its charge. 2013-14 models include Cadillac ELR, Chevy Volt, Ford C-MAX Energi, Ford Fusion Energi, Honda Accord & Toyota Prius Plug Ins C-Max Energi all electric,75 mile range gas and electric, 600mi range both battery and gasoline energy sources are used in intermediary blend phase

    Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Chevy Volt- plug in hybrid all electric 40 mile range standard gas engine 38 mpg- extends range between charges Currently best selling PEV (9/13)
  38. Electric Vehicles

    Potential for zero emissions 57% less CO2 when fueled with NC electric grid Many options and applications: family cars, commercial vans, buses, light trucks, trolleys Standardized plugs for recharging Increased availability of public recharging infrastructure 50-70 cents per gallon equivalent
  39. Ford Focus Electric all-electric, 76 mi range 20 hours to recharge

    Electric Vehicles Available in NC

    Nissan Leaf all-electric, 70-100 mi range 3-20 hours to recharge depending on charging station Honda Fit EV All electric, 83 mi range 3 hours to recharge Mitsubishi I all electric 62 mile range 7-14 hours to recharge depending on charging station Up to $7,500 federal tax credit available for electric vehicles!
  40. Natural Gas

    Lowest carbon density of all fossil fuel: composed of 1 carbon atom 4 hydrogen atoms Decreased emissions of NOx Reduced fuel costs compared to gasoline & diesel Excellent choice for refuse, transit, delivery and high mileage fleet applications
  41. Propane

    Propane AKA- Liquefied Petroleum Gas ( LPG) , also referred to as Autogas 17 M vehicles worldwide (2011) Low cost refueling infrastructure and vehicle conversion Decreased NOx emissions in many applications Top fleet applications include 1st responders & Para-transit
  42. CNG and LPG Considerations

    Reduced emissions Can be fewer CO, NOX, VOC, and toxins than gasoline or diesel, CO2 reduced 9-16% (AFLEET 2013) Energy security 85% -90%of LPG & CNG used in US is domestically produced Cost savings Up to ½ the price of gasoline or diesel Established distribution network NC has 15 public CNG stations LPG refueling is relatively inexpensive and can be provided at no cost by fuel providers with fuel contract
  43. CNG Vehicles Dedicated & Bi-fuel options Coming soon on state contract OEMs include Ford, Honda, GM, Cummins Westport; Many options for EPA certified up-fits carry factory warranties. See NC Clean Transportation Technology Industry Directory for vendor and vehicle list under Resources at
  44. LPG Vehicles Dedicated & Bi-fuel options Coming soon on state contract OEMs include Freightliner, Thomas Built, Roush (Ford) & Bluebird LPG prep packages on GM Many options for EPA certified up-fits carry factory warranties. See NC Clean Transportation Technology Industry Directory for vendor and vehicle list under Resources at
  45. Retrofit Technologies

    Long life of diesel engines makes it critical to retrofit “legacy” fleets with advanced technologies such as particulate filters, oxidation catalysts Example technologies: Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF): Ceramic devices collect particulate matter in exhaust stream and work best on engines built after 1995 Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC): Chemical process to break pollutants in exhaust stream down into less harmful components, on-road & off-road vehicles Close Crankcase Ventilation: Reduces emissions of hydrocarbons and PM produced from the engine crankcase or oil pan area, typically combined with other retrofit technologies Check EPA website for verified technology list
  46. Biodiesel – General Definitions

    Domestic, renewable fuel for diesel engines Derived from fats and oils such as soybeans and animal fats Used in any concentration with petro-diesel in existing diesel engines with little or no modification NOTraw vegetable oil, MUSTundergo a chemical process that removes glycerin from the oil. Biodiesel blend, n. -- a blend of biodiesel fuel meeting ASTM D 6751 with petroleum-based diesel fuel designated BXX, where XX is the volume percent of biodiesel.
  47. Air Quality Benefits: pre-2007 vehicles

    Why use Biodiesel?

    Non-toxic High flash point Lower emissions in many applications CO2 reduced 15– 76% in all applications Good lubricity* “Pour and go” technology, no retro-fits required *Blending biodiesel into ULSD is one way to increase lubricity of ULSD. A 2% blend (B2) is sufficient to address this concern Source: EPA ( ** A 2005 NC DOT study found a 10 % decrease in NOX with B20 in on-road testing of dump trucks
  48. E85 Air Quality Benefits: Criteria Pollutant Emissions

    What is Ethanol?

    Renewable fuel produced by fermenting organic materials Used in E10 in all gasoline vehicles, E85 in flex fuel vehicles (FFVs) E100 is 115 octane, non-toxic, biodegradable, water soluble Transported via truck or rail, no pipeline 27% less energy in a gallon of E85, needs to be priced below petroleum to be competitive E85 20% less CO2 than gasoline, less CO & NOx (well-to-wheels, AFLEET 2013)
  49. Why support E85 use in NC?

    Already have the vehicles & the fuel : In 2013 NC has over 441,000 (FFVs) while the US has over 9 million FFVs [March 2011, Growth Energy] There are 9 E85 fueling stations in North Carolina ( All major US automakers sell FFVs at no additional cost to the purchaser Over 50% of new models are capable of running on 85% ethanol- over 50 makes and models for 2014
  50. Jaguar XJ Jaguar XJL Jeep Grand Cherokee Land Rover Range Rover Lincoln Navigator Mercedes –Benz C300 Mercedes-Benz E350 Mercedes-Benz ML350 Nissan Armada Nissan Titan Ram 1500 Ram C/V Toyota Sequoia Toyota Tundra Volkswagen Routan Audi A4 quattro Audi A5 Cabriolet quattro Audi A5 quattro Audi Q5 Bentley Continental Bentley Flying Spur Buick Lacrosse Cadillac Escalade Chevrolet Captiva Chevrolet Captiva Chevrolet Equinox Chevrolet Express 1500 Chevrolet Impala Chevrolet Impala Chevrolet Silverado Chevrolet Suburban Chevrolet Tahoe Chrysler 200 Chrysler 300 Dodge Avenger Dodge Charger Dodge Durango Dodge Grand Caravan Dodge Journey Ford E150 Ford E250 Ford Expedition Ford Explorer Ford Focus Ford Taurus GMC Savana GMC Sierra GMC Terrain GMC Yukon GMC Yukon Denali Jaguar XF

    2014 E85 Flex Fuel Vehicles (FFVS)

    For annual list of FFVs visit under Resources > Factsheets OR
  51. Ethanol: Food vs Fuel?

    Ethanol is made from “ field corn”, not “ sweet corn” Field corn production- Wet Mill Products: corn starch, corn sugars, sweeteners, corn oil Feed co-products: corn steep liquor, corn germ meal, corn gluten feed, corn gluten meal Dry Mill Products: ethanol, carbon dioxide, distillers grain 1 bushel of dry corn produces 2.7 gallons of ethanol and 18 pounds of dried distillers grain Distillers grain can be used for livestock feed
  52. Biofuels - the future

    Future Biofuels Will Alleviate Much of the Concern about Competition Between Food and Fuel: Cellulosic biofuel feed-stocks can be produced on land not suitable for crops, collected from forest residues Advanced biofuels refineries are coming on line - Kior: Mississippi plant produces renewable crude oil from cellulosic biomass ( wood) - POET: 25 MGY plant set to open in Iowa Q1 2014 using corn stover North Carolina based Novozymes is global leader in enzymes needed for advanced biofuels. Future depends on reducing costs and keeping the Renewable Fuel Standard requirements: 14.4 B gals of ethanol in 2014 E15 blend EPA approved for 2001 and newer models but petroleum industry does not want to blend more than 10% ( which it needs to meet oxygenate requirements). Overall fuel consumption is declining, making RFS more difficult More reasons to expand E85 use!
  53. Section 7 Resources and Next Steps
  54. NC Solar Center fact sheets newsletter grants opportunities meetings

    State and Local Resources

    Triangle Clean Cities Coalition Centralina Clean Fuels Coalition (Charlotte) Land of Sky Clean Vehicles Coalition (Asheville) N.C. Dept of Transportation
  55. Federal Resources Use EPA’s Green Vehicle Guide and DOE’s Fuel Economy Guides to compare vehicles When shopping for a new or used vehicle, pay attention to new vehicle stickers
  56. SAVE THE DATES! October 22-24,2014 Southeast Alternative Fuels Conference & Expo Raleigh Convention Center Raleigh NC Website coming end of Nov: