Transportation & Sustainability: Options & Opportunity. Anne Tazewell NC Solar Center / NC State University 919-513-7831 firstname.lastname@example.org www.cleantransportation.org. Presentation Outline. The Clean Fuel Advanced Technology Project The Importance of Clean Transportation
Transportation & Sustainability:Options & Opportunity Anne Tazewell NC Solar Center / NC State University 919-513-7831 email@example.com www.cleantransportation.org
Presentation Outline The Clean Fuel Advanced Technology Project The Importance of Clean Transportation Green Driving / Fleet Practices Alternative Fuels Overview
Reducing transportation related emissions through: Education, Outreach, Recognition Expansion of alternative fuel infrastructure & vehicles Statewide partnership Sponsored by NCDOT with federal CMAQ funding
Clean Fuel Advanced Technology 2013-2015
Section 1 NC Air Quality & Health
North Carolina Air Quality 24 counties do not meet national air quality standards for ozone.
42% of the nation lives where pollution levels are dangerous http://www.stateoftheair.org/2013/key-findings/
Health Impacts of Vehicle Emissions
Health Impacts of Vehicle Emissions
CO2 and Climate Change
Indicates anomalies by comparing recorded annual temp. values against a long-term avg. Greenhouse Effect: increased levels of CO2 in the atmosphere trap solar radiation….the earth warms... http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/science/indicators/weather-climate/temperature.html
Section 2 National Trends in Fuel and Vehicles
Demand Growing and industrializing world
Supply Exists, but harder to get Many nations historically unfriendly to US Average US household spent $3,000 annually on gasoline in 2010 Economics & Statistic Administration U.S. Dept of Commerce http://www.eia.gov/tools/faqs/faq.cfm?id=33&t=6
Emission Standards: Cleaner Vehicles
Fuel economy standard for passenger vehicles from MY1978-2025
Heavy Duty Emissions Late 2006 - All diesel is Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel 2007-2010 “Clean” Engine phase-in, heavy duty trucks Lowered NOx 96% & PM 90% compared to 1994 Increased cost of conventional vehicles
Alternative Fuel Requirements
1992 Federal Energy Policy Act 2004-2005 North Carolina budget provision 19.5 2009 Executive Order 13514 2007 U.S. Energy Independence & Security Act (EISA) Renewable Fuels Standard Biofuel provisions
Transportation Solutions There is no silver bullet! Efficiency VMT Reduction Programs Alternative fuels Advanced technology vehicles
Get more out of what you use: Eco Driving Proper vehicle maintenance (proper tune-ups, filter changes, engine lubes, tire inflation) Lower speeds and slower accelerations Using overdrive gears and cruise control Removing excess weight “Right size” vehicle for the job and when purchasing get most fuel-efficient/least emissions vehicle Eliminate unnecessary idling For every 5 mph over 60, your fuel efficiency decreases by 7%
VMT Reduction Programs
Reduce Use: Combine or avoid trips through phone and video conferencing Carpool Adjust routes Use public transit, walk, bike
Section 5 Green Fleets
Green Fleet Program - Why Have One? Institutionalize support for petroleum and/or emissions reduction to get: Cycle of Improvement Less vulnerability to staff turn-over, opposition Streamlined ‘green’ decision-making Positive PR
How do we establish a “green fleet” policy?
Option 1: (top-down) Pass a State/County/City wide ordinance, or enact an executive order, that codifies the “green fleet” process and delegates specific responsibilities within local government to take action. Option 2: (bottom-up) Establish internal departmental or agency fleet policies, which are clear and carry sufficient weight with departmental or agency heads. Option 3: (hybrid) Pass a resolution that serves as enabling legislation for establishing a “green fleet” policy, and then work out the details of the policy at the departmental or agency level.
How To Green Your Fleet Fleet Assessments Fleet Inventory Vehicle Utilization Review Policies and Vehicle Management System Review Fleet Improvement Planning Mechanism to share/celebrate successes Internally and Externally!
Fleet Improvement Planning Goals, objectives Review fleet assessment results, including policies/procedures Develop options list to reduce fuel use and fleet-based emissions Research products and services (including case studies, pilot project results) Explore existing incentives and grants Select best fit options
Sample Green Fleet Program Components Formal Fleet Assessment program Green vehicle purchase policies/procedures Fuel tracking and Eco-driving program Idle-Reduction Policy Note: NC Solar Center & partners are launching a NC Green Fleet Program in 2014 to help account for & track individual organization & statewide progress
Section 6 Clean Transportation Technologies
Idle Reduction TechnologiesLight Duty and Heavy-Duty Vehicles
Idle Reduction TechnologiesExtended Deep Cycle Power Sources http://www.odysseybatteries.com/ www.IndependencePackage.com Operate all on board electrical equipment without having to invest in an Auxiliary Power Unit The Odyssey Battery (mfg. by EnerSys, Reading, Pa) & is deep cycle AGM/VRLA battery example Energy Xtreme “Independence Package” another option- potential for vehicles electronics to run 4-6 hours and recharge in 2 hours. Excellent choice for first responders
Idle Reduction Technologies Truck Stop Electrification Examples http://www.shorepower.com/ http://www.envirodock.com/truck-stop-and-travel.php Provides idle reduction opportunity without carrying around the extra weight of an APU Shorepower’s “power pedestal” metered power source Company also provides an on-board cab kit that can include HVAC, cooking center, entertainment, etc. EnviroDock provides heating and cooling, plus electricity to power on-board appliances through E-Dock Stationary and E-Doc portable systems.
Idle Reduction Policies Implement Your Own Idle Reduction Program http://epa.gov/cleanschoolbus/index.htm Recognize drivers who successfully reduce idling Award drivers a certificate of recognition (see U.S. EPA Idle-Reduction Kit) Rewards for drivers who successfully reduce idling (gift certificates or other items from local businesses, Clean Air non-profit organizations, or Parent/Teacher organizations) Calculate fuel and dollar savings from idling-reduction with EPA calculator Urge community leaders to issue a local Idle-Reduction Proclamation Consider using the outreach materials available in the EPA Idle-Reduction Kit to share your success with other fleet managers, the media and the general public:
Telematics Wide array of on-board systems available to track fuel use and other vehicle & driver parameters Improved fleet fuel efficiency means reduced fuel costs, lower emissions
Combine electric motor, battery storage, regenerative braking with gasoline engine Increasingly available on more and more vehicle models (66 in 2014)
A two wheeled, self-balancing personal transportation devise that can reach 12 mph In use by over 300 police and security forces including Duke University, Charlotte, Monroe & Wilmington www.segway.com NC dealers: Charlotte Energy Solutions 337 Baldwin AveCharlotte, NC 28204704-333-4358 www.charlotteenergysolutions.com Triangle Glides 327 Blake Street Raleigh NC 27601 Phone: 919-828-1988 http://www.triangleglides.com/
SEGWAY of the Triad 176 YWCA Way (Downtown @ Gateway)Winston-Salem, NC 27127Phone: 336-722-7777 http://www.segwayofthetriad.com/ www.flickr.com/photos/zen/210417662/
NEVs can fulfill many tasks especially in urban centers, campus environments, etc. Range is typically 30 to 50 miles/charge. Speed limited by federal law to 25 mph, can be driven on streets zoned up to 35 MPH.
Neighborhood Electrics (NEVs)
No special recharging infrastructure required. Can be plugged into 110 outlet. May have A/C or D/C drive systems. Most have lead/acid batteries, typically on a 72v platform.
Plug In Hybrids (PHEV) extend the electric performance of hybrids utilize a lithium-ion battery pack & electric motor for 10- 40 mile electric range. can be plugged into a 120 or 240 VAC outlet to receive its charge. 2013-14 models include Cadillac ELR, Chevy Volt, Ford C-MAX Energi, Ford Fusion Energi, Honda Accord & Toyota Prius Plug Ins C-Max Energi all electric,75 mile range gas and electric, 600mi range both battery and gasoline energy sources are used in intermediary blend phase
Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Chevy Volt- plug in hybrid all electric 40 mile range standard gas engine 38 mpg- extends range between charges Currently best selling PEV (9/13)
Potential for zero emissions 57% less CO2 when fueled with NC electric grid Many options and applications: family cars, commercial vans, buses, light trucks, trolleys Standardized plugs for recharging Increased availability of public recharging infrastructure 50-70 cents per gallon equivalent
Ford Focus Electric all-electric, 76 mi range 20 hours to recharge
Electric Vehicles Available in NC
Nissan Leaf all-electric, 70-100 mi range 3-20 hours to recharge depending on charging station Honda Fit EV All electric, 83 mi range 3 hours to recharge Mitsubishi I all electric 62 mile range 7-14 hours to recharge depending on charging station Up to $7,500 federal tax credit available for electric vehicles!
Lowest carbon density of all fossil fuel: composed of 1 carbon atom 4 hydrogen atoms Decreased emissions of NOx Reduced fuel costs compared to gasoline & diesel Excellent choice for refuse, transit, delivery and high mileage fleet applications
Propane AKA- Liquefied Petroleum Gas ( LPG) , also referred to as Autogas 17 M vehicles worldwide (2011) Low cost refueling infrastructure and vehicle conversion Decreased NOx emissions in many applications Top fleet applications include 1st responders & Para-transit
CNG and LPG Considerations
Reduced emissions Can be fewer CO, NOX, VOC, and toxins than gasoline or diesel, CO2 reduced 9-16% (AFLEET 2013) Energy security 85% -90%of LPG & CNG used in US is domestically produced Cost savings Up to ½ the price of gasoline or diesel Established distribution network NC has 15 public CNG stations LPG refueling is relatively inexpensive and can be provided at no cost by fuel providers with fuel contract
CNG Vehicles Dedicated & Bi-fuel options Coming soon on state contract OEMs include Ford, Honda, GM, Cummins Westport; Many options for EPA certified up-fits carry factory warranties. See NC Clean Transportation Technology Industry Directory for vendor and vehicle list under Resources at www.cleantransportation.org http://ncsc.ncsu.edu/wp-content/uploads/CFAT-Options-2013_14.pdf
LPG Vehicles Dedicated & Bi-fuel options Coming soon on state contract OEMs include Freightliner, Thomas Built, Roush (Ford) & Bluebird LPG prep packages on GM Many options for EPA certified up-fits carry factory warranties. See NC Clean Transportation Technology Industry Directory for vendor and vehicle list under Resources at www.cleantransportation.org http://ncsc.ncsu.edu/wp-content/uploads/CFAT-Options-2013_14.pdf
Long life of diesel engines makes it critical to retrofit “legacy” fleets with advanced technologies such as particulate filters, oxidation catalysts Example technologies: Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF): Ceramic devices collect particulate matter in exhaust stream and work best on engines built after 1995 Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC): Chemical process to break pollutants in exhaust stream down into less harmful components, on-road & off-road vehicles Close Crankcase Ventilation: Reduces emissions of hydrocarbons and PM produced from the engine crankcase or oil pan area, typically combined with other retrofit technologies Check EPA website for verified technology list http://epa.gov/cleandiesel/verification/verif-list.htm
Biodiesel – General Definitions
Domestic, renewable fuel for diesel engines Derived from fats and oils such as soybeans and animal fats Used in any concentration with petro-diesel in existing diesel engines with little or no modification NOTraw vegetable oil, MUSTundergo a chemical process that removes glycerin from the oil. Biodiesel blend, n. -- a blend of biodiesel fuel meeting ASTM D 6751 with petroleum-based diesel fuel designated BXX, where XX is the volume percent of biodiesel.
Air Quality Benefits: pre-2007 vehicles
Why use Biodiesel?
Non-toxic High flash point Lower emissions in many applications CO2 reduced 15– 76% in all applications Good lubricity* “Pour and go” technology, no retro-fits required *Blending biodiesel into ULSD is one way to increase lubricity of ULSD. A 2% blend (B2) is sufficient to address this concern Source: EPA (www.epa.gov) ** A 2005 NC DOT study found a 10 % decrease in NOX with B20 in on-road testing of dump trucks
E85 Air Quality Benefits: Criteria Pollutant Emissions
What is Ethanol?
Renewable fuel produced by fermenting organic materials Used in E10 in all gasoline vehicles, E85 in flex fuel vehicles (FFVs) E100 is 115 octane, non-toxic, biodegradable, water soluble Transported via truck or rail, no pipeline 27% less energy in a gallon of E85, needs to be priced below petroleum to be competitive E85 20% less CO2 than gasoline, less CO & NOx (well-to-wheels, AFLEET 2013) http://greet.es.anl.gov/afleet/
Why support E85 use in NC?
Already have the vehicles & the fuel : In 2013 NC has over 441,000 (FFVs) while the US has over 9 million FFVs [March 2011, Growth Energy] There are 9 E85 fueling stations in North Carolina (http://ncsc.ncsu.edu/wp-content/uploads/Retail-Locations-Ethanol-6_13.pdf) All major US automakers sell FFVs at no additional cost to the purchaser Over 50% of new models are capable of running on 85% ethanol- over 50 makes and models for 2014 http://www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/data/vehicles.html
Jaguar XJ Jaguar XJL Jeep Grand Cherokee Land Rover Range Rover Lincoln Navigator Mercedes –Benz C300 Mercedes-Benz E350 Mercedes-Benz ML350 Nissan Armada Nissan Titan Ram 1500 Ram C/V Toyota Sequoia Toyota Tundra Volkswagen Routan Audi A4 quattro Audi A5 Cabriolet quattro Audi A5 quattro Audi Q5 Bentley Continental Bentley Flying Spur Buick Lacrosse Cadillac Escalade Chevrolet Captiva Chevrolet Captiva Chevrolet Equinox Chevrolet Express 1500 Chevrolet Impala Chevrolet Impala Chevrolet Silverado Chevrolet Suburban Chevrolet Tahoe Chrysler 200 Chrysler 300 Dodge Avenger Dodge Charger Dodge Durango Dodge Grand Caravan Dodge Journey Ford E150 Ford E250 Ford Expedition Ford Explorer Ford Focus Ford Taurus GMC Savana GMC Sierra GMC Terrain GMC Yukon GMC Yukon Denali Jaguar XF
2014 E85 Flex Fuel Vehicles (FFVS)
For annual list of FFVs visit www.cleantransportation.org under Resources > Factsheets OR http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/powerSearch.jsp?keep=1&tabView=0
Ethanol: Food vs Fuel?
Ethanol is made from “ field corn”, not “ sweet corn” Field corn production- Wet Mill Products: corn starch, corn sugars, sweeteners, corn oil Feed co-products: corn steep liquor, corn germ meal, corn gluten feed, corn gluten meal Dry Mill Products: ethanol, carbon dioxide, distillers grain 1 bushel of dry corn produces 2.7 gallons of ethanol and 18 pounds of dried distillers grain Distillers grain can be used for livestock feed http://www.ddgs.umn.edu/articles-industry/2002-Kaiser-%20Utilizing%20the%20growing%20local%20supply%20of--.pdf
Biofuels - the future
Future Biofuels Will Alleviate Much of the Concern about Competition Between Food and Fuel: Cellulosic biofuel feed-stocks can be produced on land not suitable for crops, collected from forest residues Advanced biofuels refineries are coming on line - Kior: Mississippi plant produces renewable crude oil from cellulosic biomass ( wood) - POET: 25 MGY plant set to open in Iowa Q1 2014 using corn stover North Carolina based Novozymes is global leader in enzymes needed for advanced biofuels. Future depends on reducing costs and keeping the Renewable Fuel Standard requirements: 14.4 B gals of ethanol in 2014 E15 blend EPA approved for 2001 and newer models but petroleum industry does not want to blend more than 10% ( which it needs to meet oxygenate requirements). Overall fuel consumption is declining, making RFS more difficult More reasons to expand E85 use!
Section 7 Resources and Next Steps
NC Solar Center fact sheets newsletter grants opportunities meetings www.cleantransportation.org
State and Local Resources
Triangle Clean Cities Coalition www.trianglecleancities.org Centralina Clean Fuels Coalition (Charlotte) www.4cleanfuels.com Land of Sky Clean Vehicles Coalition (Asheville) www.cleanvehiclescoalition.org N.C. Dept of Transportation www.ncdot.gov/travel/drivegreen/
Federal Resources Use EPA’s Green Vehicle Guide and DOE’s Fuel Economy Guides to compare vehicles When shopping for a new or used vehicle, pay attention to new vehicle stickers http://www.nhtsa.gov/Laws+&+Regulations/CAFE+-+Fuel+Economy/Fuel+economy+and+environment+label
SAVE THE DATES! October 22-24,2014 Southeast Alternative Fuels Conference & Expo Raleigh Convention Center Raleigh NC Website coming end of Nov: www.altfuelsconference.org