CANCER BASICS UNDERSTANDING CANCER Candy Amerine, NCI CIS Rocky Mountain Region Barbara G. Lloyd MD, MCCCP 1-800-4-CANCER www.cancer.gov
What do we expect of you as we spend this time together learning about cancer?
Cancer • Beliefs • Stories
Cancer Beliefs • Cancer is contagious. • Cancer is caused by an injury, such as a bump or a bruise. • Cancer always runs in families. • Exposing cancer to air will cause disease to spread.
Take Home Points • Cancer is named for its primary tissue site • Cancer can metastasize to other locations in the body
What Is Cancer? The term “cancer” refers to more than 100 different diseases that begin in the cells, the body’s basic unit of life.
To understand cancer, we must understand a bit about the human body.
Our body • Our body is made of organs which are made up of cells. • Each organ has a different function. • The cells of each organ have a distinctly difference appearance from those of another organ and have a specific function. • Cancer can develop in any of these cells.
Normal Cell Growth Old Cell Death New Cell Growth New cell growth and old cell death are kept in balance.
Abnormal Cell Growth • Loss of self destruct • Loss of proximity alarm • Leads to uncontrolled growth • • The balance is disrupted. Old Cell Death New Cell Growth
Benign versus Malignant Tumors • Tumors can be either benign or malignant. • Benign tumors are not cancer, do not spread to other parts of the body and are usually not a threat to life.
Benign versus Malignant Tumors • Malignant tumors are cancer. • Cells in malignant tumors can grow without control and invade or damage other parts of the body. • When cancer (malignant tumor) spreads from the original site to another part of the body it is called metastasis.
Abnormal Cells/Excessive Tissue • Hyperplasia -An increase in the number of cells • Dysplasia -An alteration in the size, shape, or organization of cells
Characteristics of Cancer Cells • Grow in a disorderly way. • Divide rapidly. • Can spread throughout the body. • Normal skin cell growth. • Balance of new cells and dead cells. • Abnormal skin cell growth. • Tumor is growing.
Primary Cancer Site Cancer gets its name from the organ where it begins - not where it spreads to! Breast Cancer Lung Cancer Colon Cancer Prostate Cancer Liver Cancer
Cancer Metastasis Metastasis is the process by which cancer spreads from its original or primary site to another part of the body.
Cancer Types • Solid Malignant Tumors • Carcinoma • Sarcoma • Blood or Lymphoid Cancers • Leukemia • Lymphoma • Myeloma
Just a quick quiz - True or False • Cancer cells divide rapidly. • A tumor is always cancerous. • Malignant tumors do not metastasize from one part the body to another.
Take Home Points Cancer is named for its primary tissue site Cancer can metastasize to other locations in the body
Take Home Points Data define burden Data sources Top 3 MT Cancers (Male & Female)
What are Data? • The plural of datum; facts or numbers from which conclusions can be drawn • Documented information or evidence of any kind • Data are summarized by statistics • Data: from the Latin dare, to give (that which is given)
Why Data? Public health professionals use Data: • Measure cancer burden • Evaluate intervention
Cancer Data Sources • Cancer Registry • Treatment Center Registries • Montana Central Tumor Registry (MCTR) • North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) • National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - NPCR • National Cancer Institute (NCI) - SEER • Vital Statistics (VS) - Causes of death
Data Sources • Population Surveys • Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) • Diet • Obesity • Physical Activity • Cancer Screening • Adult Tobacco Survey (ATS)
Cancer Data Resources • Questions or Requests for Data: Leah Merchant 444-4599 • Publications access: www.cancer.mt.gov (click on Cancer Data and Reports) • Quarterly Surveillance Reports • Tumor Registry Annual Reports • Other
Cancer Data Definitions • Incidence = the number of new cases of a disease that occur in a population each year • Prevalence = existing cases • Mortality = the number of deaths from a disease that occur in a population each year • Disparity = sex, race, geographic, or economic differences in cancer burden
Cancer Data Definitions • Rate= # cases / population / time • Population = those at risk or of interest • 128 per 100,000 per year (Age-adjusted to the 2000 Census) • Age-adjusted = how many cancers we would have if our population had the same age and sex distribution as the “standard” population • Survival rate = % alive after a period of time (commonly 5-year)
Age-adjusting • Can compare populations directly • Montana to US • Counties to state • County to county • Can compare kinds of cancer
Data Limitations • Time Delay • Time depth: • VS • Registries • BRFSS • Data Source Specific
Types • Data • Projections • Research • Evaluation
World Cancer Data: Mortality • Cancer deaths 2005: 7.6 million • World cancer deaths estimated rise: • 2015: 9 million • 2030: 11.4 million WHO http://www.who.int/cancer/en/ GBD 2002: Deaths 2002 World Health Report 2004
US Cancer Data: Mortality • In 2005, CANCER killed approximately 579,000 people • 259,000 under the age of 70 • In 2005, TRACHEA, BRONCHUS, LUNG CANCERS are the leading cause of CANCER DEATHS in MEN & WOMEN http://www.who.int/cancer/en/
US Cancer Data: Mortality • In 2008: about 565,650 Americans are expected to die of cancer • more than 1,500 people a day • 1 of every 4 deaths American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2008
US Cancer Data: Incidence • In 2004, BREASTis the most common cancer diagnosed in WOMEN • In 2004, PROSTATEis the most common cancer diagnosed in MEN U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group. United States Cancer Statistics: 2004 Incidence and Mortality. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Cancer Institute; 2007.
US Cancer Data: Incidence Females United States Cancer Statistics: 2004 Incidence and Mortality Age-Adjusted Invasive Cancer Incidence Rates for the 10 Primary Site
US Cancer Data: Incidence Males United States Cancer Statistics: 2004 Incidence and Mortality Age-Adjusted Invasive Cancer Incidence Rates for the 10 Primary Site
US Cancer Data: Projections • 2008: expect 1.5 million new cancer cases to be diagnosed • NCI estimates 10.8 million with a history of cancer (survivors) were alive January 2004 American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2008. Atlanta: American Cancer Society; 2008.
US Cancer Data: Projections • NCI predicts 1/3 of US adults will be diagnosed with cancer in their lifetimes • US cancer will double by 2050 • 1/3 of all cancer deaths and 1/5 of all deaths can be attributed to tobacco
Economic Cancer Burden US NIH estimate 2007, cancer cost over $219 billion American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2008. Atlanta: American Cancer Society; 2008.
MT Cancer Data: Mortality • The 2nd leading cause of death in MT • More than 1 in 5 deaths = 23%of all deaths in 2006 • ≈ 1,800 Montanan lives per year • 1,940 cancer deaths in 2006 • 204 colorectal cancer deaths in 2006