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CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL DEFENSE PowerPoint Presentation
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CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL DEFENSE

CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL DEFENSE

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CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL DEFENSE

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  1. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL DEFENSE

  2. Topic 1.3Chemical/Biological Defense - Agent Identification - First Aid - Decontamination

  3. Enabling Objectives(page 1). • RECOGNIZE the characteristics and effects of chemical and biological agents. • ANALYZE the protective measures of chemical and biological defense. • RECOGNIZE chemical / biological attack alarms and signals. • RECOGNIZE chemical / biological contamination.

  4. Enabling Objectives Continued. • PERFORM skin decontamination. • PERFORM self and buddy aid. • PERFORM the procedures of immediate and operational decon. • OPERATE in a chemical environment.

  5. Introduction. • If attacked with chemical or biological weapons, there may be little or no warning. The attack may contaminate large areas and reaction must be immediate to protect against contamination.

  6. Characteristics of Chemical Agents(page.2). • Classified according to their effects & characteristics. • Four classifications: • Nerve Agents. • Blister Agents. • Blood Agents. • Choking Agents.

  7. Nerve Agents. • Deadliest chemical agents known (death can occur within minutes) • Enter into the body by: • Breathing. • Skin Contact. • Eye Absorption.

  8. Table 1-3-1 (page 2)

  9. Mild Symptoms(pages 2 &3) • Unexplained runny nose. • Sudden headache. • Excessive flow of saliva. • Tightness in chest. • Difficulty seeing. • Muscular twitching. • Stomach cramps. • Nausea. • Excessive sweating.

  10. Severe Symptoms • Strange / confused behavior • Gurgling breathing sounds • Severely pinpointed pupils • Red tearing eyes • Vomiting. • Severe muscle twitching. • Loss of bladder / bowel control • Convulsions. • Stoppage of breathing.

  11. Nerve Agent Treatment • Self Aid - If you experience most or all of the mild symptoms of nerve agent poisoning. Immediately hold your breath and don your protective mask. • Administer (1) Atropine and (1) 2 PAM CI injections into your lateral thigh muscle ( or buttocks ).

  12. Nerve Agent Treatment • Note: • Navy personnel are issued (3) atropine and (3) 2PAM CL. and (1) CANA auto-injectors each. (complete set is referred to as the Nerve Agent Antidote Kit (NAAK).

  13. Steps for Injection(pages 3 to 9) • Don and clear mask • Remove one set of auto-injectors. • Remove safety cap from atropine. • Inject thigh or buttocks, hold for 10 sec. • Remove safety cap from 2 PAM CL. • Inject in the same manner as with Atropine

  14. INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTION SITE ON THE LATERAL THIGH

  15. INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTION SITE ON THE BUTTOCKS

  16. Attach used injectors to the front pocket flap of protective overgarmet. Massage the injection site if time permits

  17. Steps for Injection(pages 3 to 9) • Warning: within 10-15 min. after administering injections, your heart beats rapidly and mouth becomes dry, DO NOT give another set of injections. • Note: if you are able to walk without assistance, know who you are and where your are, you WILL NOT need the second set of injections.

  18. Steps for Injection • Note: if however you continue to have symptoms 10-15 min. after one set of injections, you are experiencing SEVERE symptoms and will require buddy aid. Seek buddy to check symptoms and administer second set of injections if needed. • Note: While waiting between sets of injections you should decon yourself if necessary and put on remaining protective clothing.

  19. Nerve Agent Treatment(page 7) • Buddy-Aid - Casualties with severe symptoms WILL NOT be able to treat themselves. No more than three sets of antidote are administered. Buddy-aid also includes administering the CANA with the third set of injections to prevent convulsions.

  20. INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTION SITE ON THE LATERAL THIGH

  21. INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTION SITE ON THE BUTTOCKS

  22. Attach used injectors to the front pocket flap of protective overgarmet.

  23. Blister Agents (page 9) • Cause inflammation, blisters, and destruction of tissues • Enter into. the body by: • Breathing. • Skin contact. • Eye absorption.

  24. Table 1-3-2. (pages 9 & 10)

  25. Symptoms.(page 9) • Little or no pain at time of exposure. • Signs of injury may not appear for several hours.

  26. Blister Agent Treatment(page. 10) • Self-aid - Use the M291 or flush rapidly with large amounts of water. • Note: Blister agent in eyes requires immediate flushing with water. • Buddy-aid - If blisters appear, seek medical attention.

  27. Blood Agents(page. 10) • Prevent normal transfer of oxygen to tissues. • Enter the body by breathing.

  28. Table 1-3-3.

  29. Mild Symptoms(page 11) • Irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat • Coughing. • Tightness. in chest • Headache. • Vertigo (whirling feeling) • Nausea.

  30. Severe Symptoms(page 11) • Unconsciousness. • Failing respiration. • Convulsions. • Coma. • Loss of bladder and / or bowel control • Death.

  31. Blood Agent Treatment • No field treatment, immediate masking is essential.

  32. Choking Agents(page 12) • Irritate and inflame tissues from the nose to the lungs, causing choking • Enter the body by breathing.

  33. Table 1-3-4. (page 12)

  34. Coughing. Tightness in chest. Choking. Nausea. Occasionally vomiting. Tearing of eyes. Headache. Symptoms(page 12) Symptoms during and immediately after exposure may include:

  35. Symptoms (Cont.) • A symptom-free period, followed by symptoms of pneumonia. • Commonly last 2 to 24 hours, but may be shorter.

  36. Choking Agent Treatment • Self-aid - Mask immediately, continue the mission. • Buddy-aid - If severe symptoms appear 2 to 24 hours later, seek medical attention.

  37. Classified by : Type. Uses. Operational effects. Physiological action Characteristics of Biological Agents.

  38. Pathogens - Bacteria - Rickettsia - Viruses • Toxins - Neurotoxins - Cytotoxins Biological Agents * Both will have little or no odor * Both can be deadly shortly after contact

  39. Living microorganisms (germs) Enter the body by : Skin Respiratory tract Digestive tract Illness may not appear for days Three types are : Bacteria Rickettsia Viruses. Pathogens(page 13)

  40. Bacteria Cause diseases such as : • anthrax • gonorrhea • food poisoning • scarlet fever • syphilis.

  41. Rickettsia Produce diseases such as : • Typhus • Spotted fever.

  42. Viruses(page 13) • Flu (mild cases) • Chronic infections Cause diseases that resemble :

  43. Pathogens - Bacteria - Rickettsia - Viruses • Toxins - Neurotoxins - Cytotoxins Biological Agents

  44. Toxins • Poison produced as by-products by : • Pathogens • Plants • Animals. • Toxin poisoning will mimic chemical agents symptoms.

  45. Toxins • Two basic groups are : • Neurotoxins • Cytotoxins • Neurotoxins (“nerve toxins”) produce nerve agent symptoms. • Cytotoxins (“cell toxins”) produce choking, blister, or radiation like symptoms.

  46. Biological Agent Treatment (pages 13 & 14) • The best way to prevent yourself from being a biological casualty is to practice some preventive measure to include. • Physical condition • Personal hygiene • Area sanitation • Immunization • Note:Treatment of biological agent or toxin casualties requires medical attention as soon as possible.

  47. Table 1-3-5 (page 14)LD 50 (Parts per Kilogram)

  48. Recognizing an Attack(page 15) Little or no warning You must be familiar with : • Delivery systems • Attack indicators • Agent detection • Alarms and signals

  49. Ground bursting air contaminating non-persistent Air Bursting ground contaminating persistent Aircraft Spray ground contaminating persistent Delivery Systems Chemical Agent Delivery Systems include: