Module 1 Nutrition
Objectives • Define “nutrition integrity” in Child Nutrition Programs (CNP) • Identify nutrients essential to CNP meals • Recognize how Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) are set for different age groups • Point out how RDAs form the foundation for the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (Dietary Guidelines), which in turn form the basis of CNP
Objectives 5. Follow the standards set by the School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children (SMI) in ensuring healthy meals 6. Advocate for student selection of healthy meals 7. Apply what you learn to your role as a child nutrition professional
Nutrition Integrity SNA defines nutrition integrity as follows: A level of performance that assures all foods and beverages available in schools are consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and, when combined with nutrition education, physical activity, and a healthy school environment, contributes to enhanced learning and the development of lifelong, healthy eating habits.”
Calories A calorie is the measure of the energy in a food. Proteins and carbohydrates contain 4 calories per gram. Fats contain 9 calories per gram.
Ages (Years) Calories Children 4-6 1800 7-10 2000 Males 11-14 2500 15-18 3000 Females 11-14 2200 15-18 2200
Protein Proteins are necessary for growth, maintenance, and repair of the body.
Complete & Incomplete Proteins Amino acids are the building blocks of protein. Of the 20 amino acids, 9 of them cannot be manufactured by the human body and must come from the food you eat.
Complete Protein N-U-T-R-I-T-I-O-N Incomplete Protein N--T-R--T---N
Sources COMPLETE PROTEINS INCOMPLETE PROTEINS Contains ALL 9 essential amino acids • Eggs • Milk • Meat • Poultry • Fish Contains LESS THAN 9 essential amino acids • Legumes • Nuts • Grains • Vegetables
Increasing Protein Menu Item lettuce, tomato, cucumber salad refried beans, flour tortilla potato salad apple wedges spaghetti, tomato sauce veggie fried rice bagel fruit cup biscuit vegetarian baked beans To Raise Protein, Add… julienne turkey low-fat grated cheese hard-cooked egg low-fat cottage cheese soy crumbles chick peas peanut butter low-fat yogurt reduced fat turkey sausage whole wheat roll
Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are the body’s main source of calories or energy. Carbohydrates are also needed to turn the body’s store of fat into calories for energy needs.
Sources Complex carbohydrates: fruits, vegetables, grains, beans and peas, rice, pasta, bread, and cereals. Simple carbohydrates: fruit (fructose), milk (lactose), and table sugar (sucrose). Sugar added to foods can include: brown sugar, raw sugar, corn syrup, honey, cane sugar, high-fructose corn syrup, and molasses
Activity 2a Calorie freeReduced sugarSugar freeNo added sugar
Fiber 1.Aids the digestive process by moving other foods through the intestinal tract and helps weight loss by making us feel “full.” 2. Has been linked to reducing the risk of colon diseases and cancer, heart disease, diabetes, obesity, and controlling cholesterol blood levels.
Sources • Fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and some seeds and nuts • Vegetables offer fiber through the leaf, flower or stem of the plant (e.g., leafy greens, celery, asparagus, cauliflower, broccoli and Brussels sprouts) • Fruit skins and membranes of fruits and vegetables
Increase Fiber • Stay close to nature • Switch to whole grains
Increase Fiber 3. “Fiberize” your cooking style 4. Experiment with unfamiliar whole grains
Fat • Adds flavor · Because it stays in the digestive tract longer than carbohydrates, fat signals the brain that the body is satisfied and doesn’t need more food
Fat · Fat soluble vitamins are transported by fat in the diet · The body uses fat to make the insulation for organs to protect them from injury · Fat supplies essential fatty acids which the body cannot make
Sources 1. Spreads and oils: butter, margarine, olive oil, corn oil, and lard 2. Meat, fish 3. Milk and milk products
Sources 5. Some fruits and vegetables – such as avocadoes and olives; however, most fruits and vegetables are very low in fat 4. Nuts
Cholesterol · Makes bile which helps the body digest and absorb fat · Is part of some hormones · Can change to vitamin D with the help of sunlight on the skin
Child Nutrition Programs Require • 30% or less of calories from fat • Less than 10% of calories from saturated fat • Averaged over a week
Calcium Helps • Form bones and teeth • Muscles contract and the heart to beat • Blood clotting • Slow the rate of bone loss as people age • The nervous system to send messages
Sources • Dairy foods supply 75 percent of all the calcium in the U.S. food supply. • Other foods: dark-green leafy vegetables and fish with edible bones provide significant amounts. • Some processed foods, such as orange juice and breakfast cereal, may be fortified with calcium. • Vitamin D helps the body to absorb calcium from food
Iron • Iron supports the functioning of the red blood cells that carry oxygen to every cell in the body. • Vitamin C improves iron absorption.
Sources Iron is present in both animal (red meat) and plant foods (blackstrap molasses). Some foods are fortified with iron (breakfast cereal).
Sodium’s Job · Maintaining proper fluid balance · Regulating blood pressure · Transmitting nerve impulses
Sources • Salt may be shaken on food, and you can taste it in chips, ham, soy sauce, and pretzels. • Sodium is also found in processed and prepared foods, packaged mixes, canned foods, luncheon meats, and cheese. • NA, cured, pickled, corned, smoked meat sodium is added. • Most condiments, such as mustard, ketchup, soy sauce, some salad dressings and teriyaki sauce contain sodium.
Reduce Sodium • Remove salt shakers and portioned salt from the serving area • Offer salty foods less often and salt them less • Concentrate on reducing added salt and opt instead for other seasonings and herbs • Read labels to identify the amount of salt in products, then select the lowest sodium product that doesn’t sacrifice quality
Reduce Sodium • Select soup bases that do not list salt in the first few ingredients • Serve unsalted pretzels • Check labels for vegetable juices and select those with lower amounts of sodium • Frozen vegetables usually contain less sodium than canned vegetables and fresh vegetables even less • In place of onion or garlic salt, use onion or garlic powder
Vitamin A · Helps the eyes to see normally in the dark · Promotes the growth and health of cells and tissues · Protects against infection by keeping skin and mucous tissues (mouth, stomach, intestines, respiratory, genital and urinary tracts) healthy • Is an antioxidant, may reduce the risk for certain cancers and diseases of aging
Sources · Animal products, such as eggs and liver · Whole milk or fat free milk that has been fortified · Fortified foods, such as breakfast cereals • Beta carotene, a substance in plant foods that the body changes into vitamin A (dark green, dark yellow/orange and red fruits and vegetables)
Vitamin C Also called Ascorbic Acid, Vitamin C helps: · Produce collagen, a connective tissue that gives structure by holding tissues together · Form and repair red blood cells, bones, and other tissues · Keep capillary walls and blood vessels firm