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Atomic Structure

Atomic Structure

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Atomic Structure

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  1. Atomic Structure Atoms and their structure

  2. History of the atom • Not the history of atom, but the history of the idea of the atom • Original idea Ancient Greece (400 B.C..) • Democritus and Leucippus - two Greek philosophers

  3. History of Atom • Smallest possible piece? • Atomos - not to be cut • Looked at beach • Made of sand • Cut sand - smaller sand

  4. Another Greek • Aristotle - Famous philosopher • All substances are made of 4 elements • Fire - hot • Air - light • Earth - cool, heavy • Water - wet • Blend these in different proportions to get all substances

  5. Who Was Right? • Greek society was slave based • It was beneath the famous to work with their hands • They did not experiment • Greeks settled disagreements by argument • Aristotle was more famous • He won • His ideas carried through to the middle ages. • Alchemists therefore tried to change lead to gold

  6. Who’s Next? • Late 1700’s - John Dalton - a famous English chemist conducted experiments • Summarized results of his experiments and those of other’s • Where? • In Dalton’s Atomic Theory • Combined ideas of elements with that of atoms

  7. Dalton’s Atomic Theory • All matter is made of tiny indivisible particles called atoms. • Atoms of the same element are identical, those of different atoms are different. • Atoms of different elements combine in whole number ratios to form compounds • Chemical reactions involve the rearrangement of atoms. No new atoms are created or destroyed.

  8. Law of Definite Proportions • Each compound has a specific ratio of elements • It is a ratio by mass • Water is always 8 grams of oxygen for each gram of hydrogen

  9. Law of Multiple Proportions • If two elements form more that one compound, the ratio of the second element that combines with 1 gram of the first element in each is always a simple whole number.

  10. Parts of Atoms • J. J. Thomson - English physicist. 1897 • Made a piece of equipment called a cathode ray tube. • It is a vacuum tube - all the air has been pumped out.

  11. Voltage source Thomson’s Experiment - + Vacuum tube Metal Disks

  12. Voltage source Thomson’s Experiment - +

  13. Voltage source Thomson’s Experiment - +

  14. Voltage source Thomson’s Experiment - +

  15. Voltage source Thomson’s Experiment - + • Passing an electric current makes a beam appear to move from the negative to the positive end

  16. Voltage source Thomson’s Experiment - + • Passing an electric current makes a beam appear to move from the negative to the positive end

  17. Voltage source Thomson’s Experiment - + • Passing an electric current makes a beam appear to move from the negative to the positive end

  18. Voltage source Thomson’s Experiment - + • Passing an electric current makes a beam appear to move from the negative to the positive end

  19. Voltage source Thomson’s Experiment • By adding an electric field

  20. Voltage source Thomson’s Experiment + - • By adding an electric field

  21. Voltage source Thomson’s Experiment + - • By adding an electric field

  22. Voltage source Thomson’s Experiment + - • By adding an electric field

  23. Voltage source Thomson’s Experiment + - • By adding an electric field

  24. Voltage source Thomson’s Experiment + - • By adding an electric field

  25. Voltage source Thomson’s Experiment + - • By adding an electric field he found that the moving pieces were negative

  26. J. J. Thomsom’s Model • Discovered the electron • Couldn’t find positive (for a while) • Said the atom was like plum pudding • A bunch of positive stuff, with the electrons able to be removed

  27. Other pieces • Proton - positively charged pieces 1840 times heavier than the electron • Neutron - no charge but the same mass as a proton. • Where are the pieces?

  28. Rutherford’s experiment • Ernest Rutherford - another famous English physicist. (1910) • He believed in the plum pudding model of the atom. • He wanted to see how big the electrons (plums) were. • Used radioactive Uranium. • Alpha particles - positively charged pieces given off by uranium 2He4 • Shot them at gold foil which can be made a few atoms thick

  29. Rutherford’s experiment • When the alpha particles hit a florescent screen, it glows. • Here’s what the set up of the experiment looked like.

  30. Florescent Screen Lead block Uranium Gold Foil

  31. He Expected The alpha particles to pass through without changing direction very much Because • The positive charges were spread out evenly. Alone they were not enough to stop the alpha particles

  32. What he expected

  33. Because

  34. Because, he thought the mass was evenly distributed in the atom

  35. Because, he thought the mass was evenly distributed in the atom

  36. What he got

  37. + Conclusions of Rutherford's Experiment: • Atom is mostly empty Because most particles passed straight through • Small dense, positive piece at center Because Alpha particles are deflected by the nucleus it if they get close enough

  38. +

  39. Bohr Model • Planetary Model or Heliocentric Model • Places the nucleus in the center of the atom like the sun in the center of the universe • Places the electrons in orbitals revolving around the nucleus, like the planets revolve around the sun. (fixed paths)

  40. Modern View • The atom is mostly empty space • Two regions • Nucleus: • protons and neutrons • Electron cloud: • region where you might find an electron based on mathematical probability.

  41. Density and the Atom • Since most of the particles went through, it was mostly empty. • Because the pieces turned so much, the positive pieces were heavy. • Small volume, big mass, big density • This small dense positive area is the nucleus • Scale: marble in a football field.

  42. Subatomic particles Actual mass (g) Relative mass Name Symbol Charge Electron e- -1 1/1840 9.11 x 10-28 Proton p+ +1 1 1.67 x 10-24 Neutron n0 0 1 1.67 x 10-24

  43. Structure of the Atom • There are two regions • The nucleus • With protons and neutrons • Positive charge • Almost all the mass • Electron cloud- Most of the volume of an atom • The region where the electron can be found

  44. Size of an atom • Atoms are small. • Measured in picometers, 10-12 meters • Hydrogen atom, 32 pm radius • Nucleus tiny compared to atom (marble in a football field) • Radius of the nucleus near 10-15m.

  45. Counting the Pieces • Atomic Number = number of protons • # of protons determines kind of atom • The # of protons is the same as the number of electrons in a neutral atom • Mass Number = the number of protons + neutrons

  46. End of Part One

  47. Atomic Structure - Part Two

  48. Symbols • Contain the symbol of the element, the mass number and the atomic number