Water Policy: the challenges of fragmentation Examples from Australia, Europe and the US
“We have spent decades creating specialized disciplines and separate legal systems to govern land use, water use, and water pollution, and it will take considerable effort to demonstrate to voters, economic interests, and decision-makers at all levels of government precisely how land use and water are inextricably connected throughout the whole of a watershed.” Andreen 2006
The context… • Recognition of the problem early 1970s • Issue specific and ad hoc • Rio Conference • Environmental sustainability (new focus) • Agenda 2000 • Millennium Goals • Triple Bottom Line approach • But……”multilayered jurisdictional puzzle”
Fragmentation exists…. • Horizontal: across sectors • Vertical: across legal jurisdictions • Conceptual: across objectives Note: exists to varying degrees in all OECD countries
Vertical Fragmentation • Often conflicting legislation across jurisdictions • Local vs. state vs. federal vs. int’l • federal systems • EU • Point source pollution vs. non-point source pollution (eg. US) • Just to confuse you: also horizontal frag. across agencies
Horizontal Fragmentation • Fragmentation across sectors • Land versus water • Environmental Impact Assessments • Catchment Management Authorities • Australia very advanced, US and EU only recognizing the need now • Interests within CM prohibit integration
Conceptual Fragmentation • Social vs. economic vs. environmental • NWI – environmental water allocations • Two key problems • Water accounting • Political will • Market instruments – do they work?